It’s just been two years since I joined medicine. Finishing up my pre-clinical years now and I feel these two years changed me a lot as a human being. Doing hard work and working under pressure is there but with that, the feeling of my role in the society has recently evolved in me. Before joining it was a profession for me that I dreamed of, I did not know it meant a lot more than just a profession. I now feel that I will be able to make an impact on the society in the future. I feel that “yes I can change lives” and change for a better future for many people. Being just a second-year medical student these things may sound like idealism, “just another inspired fellow who will lose this feeling later when he’ll have to deal with ‘LIFE’.


But I ask why not to inspire medical students constantly? Apart from the vast knowledge and skills we are acquiring, I think a little bit of inspiration now and then will make the students push a little harder each time. Make them feel that what they are building up is not merely a way of living, rather it is a way of life.


As per my personal experience, the feeling that ‘I need to get to a certain level such that people will believe me and trust me so that I can make an impact on the society’ is something that gives a boost to go on during difficult times. It helps me to go through that biochemical pathway, the late night work on the practicals, the missed wedding of my sister, the party I could not go to and on and on goes the list.


We may not realize how much of an impact our words have on people. Maybe because you said the boy next door wanted to be a doctor, maybe because of you someone became more generous to the needy.







So, why not inspire people so they’ll thrive towards greatness rather than settling for “OKAY”.


Why not create a feeling in people that they can impact the society and their contribution means something to others?





As a recently passed mbbs final professional exam, I would like to share some tips for better preparation of professional exams. I think it’s easy to pass in the professional exam if you follow some suggestions. When I admitted to medical college it was scary for me as I was at a loss what to do, what not to do. In fact, I lost about six months by thinking about what to do, where to go to talk. And the medical terms was harder for me because I wasn’t a from English medium. Then I started to talk to my seniors, they gave me some advice which I had followed and succeeded.  We know that our professional exam has different parts like written, viva, practical/ long case, short case examination.

For written examination, I will suggest you solve previous five year or eight-year questions of your medical college which you can collect from your seniors, or if you have study group I think it’s easy to collect those questions. If you see those questions you may have the idea about from which topic questions may come. During written exam try your best to answer all the question as its important to get numbers, some student fails just for 2/3 marks, so its safe to answer all the questions.

For viva examination you must have to attend the lecture classes regularly, we know that during our viva exam there are two teachers in each board, one is internal another one is external from another medical college. As the interval is from your medical college, he/she knows the what questions are asked in the viva examination, so if we do the lecture classes of them, we easily get those viva questions. For that we have to attend classes, it’s not that we will do classes and write everything, like word by word of the lectures, no need. Just note the points to which your professor give emphasize or note when he says that its important for your exam. Afterward, when you return home just see those points once or twice. I did this and I made separate notebooks for each subject which helped me the night before the exam. After that, you can collect previous viva questions from your seniors and solve them. You can make discussion group in whats app or Facebook. I think its more than enough for viva. It will be very effective if you do group study during viva because of sometimes due to throat block, we know the answer but we can’t able to tell it.

For OSPE examination you can study the previous year question of your medical college. Sometimes some notebooks based on ospe may be available. If not ask your seniors what kind of questions may come in OSPE. Sometimes the professor may take classes on them, you can follow them. In the OSPE exam time is very little and you have to answer many short questions even tricky questions like in medicine, what’s the diagnosis. So be careful about time, don’t waste your time by elaborating answer, just write the exact answer.

For practical or long case or short case examination, I just say one thing “practice” yes just practice. You have to go toward for practice. It doesn’t mean that all the time you have to practice on patient, if patient isn’t available ( e.g. sometimes pt becomes irritated, or non cooperative) then practice with your classmates, examine one upon another , examination skills depends on your practice , its not like your written or viva examination that you will learn by one day. It’s totally different. The examiner will realize within seconds of your examination, that you had practiced or not. Even if it’s not possible to do the examination on your friends, like you’re in the home then just do it on yourself. Yes just do it, when I studied alone in the home I just would percuss on my chest wall, percuss on my abdomen. When you are at home, just heard your own heart sounds feel your pulse, that’s it. When you are in the home take the blood pressure of your mom, dad or any other family members. Just practice, practice and practice. there are several video channels available on Youtube for examination, see them during your off time. Study with fun, not with stress. MBBS is the toughest course in the world, so study with some tricks. There are many clinical pages, mnemonics pages, use them. When you see a mnemonic just note it down to your book. Medical students have to study many things, so its impossible to learn by heart all the things, so use mnemonic from the internet. Internet not only for facebook or chatting. Use them to increase your clinical knowledge, to open your clinical eye.

Last, of all, you need not only hard working but also luck to pass the exam. So pray to your god as your luck is on God’s hand. And best of luck, be a good doctor and serve the humanity.





Being a child, I was always afraid of doctors. They always seemed like a demon with a sword ready to pierce me through. But the reality would be just a simple man, wearing a bright white coat and standing right in front of me with a 2cc syringe. I never thought of them as a demon because of their deeds but the fact that they had a needle in their handmade my imagination go crazy. After all, I was just a normal kid waiting in the queue to get my routine vaccines and also watching every kid come out of the doctor’s cabin crying their lungs out, made my heart skip a beat. Those were the days when I had sworn to never get close to a doctor and here I am today, standing in a bright white coat, with a Littmann around my neck, entering my OPD for the very first time as an INTERN!


Every senior doctor will tell you that these twelve months of your life will help you decide your future course and with no surprise, it did help me understand what I really wanted in life.


So I started my internship with the department of community medicine. Little did I know that this would be the time when I would learn the most. Yes, it was this period of two months that taught me the most valuable lesson of my life – humanity. I can still remember my first day and my very first patient. She was a 70years old granny, a known diabetic as well as a hypertensive for the past 20years, came for her routine checkup. Her name was Mrs. Lakshmi. I clearly remember her peculiar voice and her interest in her medicines. She was an active woman with all the knowledge about her drugs as well as her doctors. She very well knew about the system of our department. She was aware that every two months the PHC would have a new batch of doctors, which is why she made sure her new doctor thoroughly went through her history and did n’t mess up with her medicines. This was something rare for an uneducated lady to do and also the reason why I remembered her so well. She made me nervous, as I was a beginner. I did not want to fail in any circumstances. Later, after reading her records, I handed her the prescription with my name and initials signed on it. She smiled with gratitude, with a blessing in return. That was the moment which made me realize that my journey had now begun. I spent two months traveling to various villages, set out camps, provided health education, distributed free drugs to those who need it. And that’s when I learnt that there are endless people who need medical help and also people who are unaware of their illnesses needed  education and our duty is not just to sit within four walls and sign off prescriptions, our duty includes to stretch a hand of humanity towards those who are suffering and bring them to a better world and at least try to give them a better life to live . I learned, we doctors, are the ray of hope they were in search of.


After completing a posting filled with mixed emotions, I entered the world of surgeons. General surgery was my next department, where I saw myself turning into the imaginary demon I was once afraid of as a kid. Every procedure I did, every step I took, involved my patient under a scalpel. My hands were shaking as I assisted my professor for my first surgery. I was all decked up and a tad bit excited to read my name on the surgeon’s walls for the scheduled surgery. But, the first time I had to bury my gloved hands into someone’s wound made me obnoxious. I felt miserable for the patient. Had just one question throughout my surgery, “God, why must a human suffer so much ?” I could barely concentrate on what was going on. I had a sigh of relief once we closed up. Happy for the patient who had made it, but still a thought in the back of my mind – what if he wouldn’t have?


As days passed, my hands stopped shaking and my thoughts started diminishing. I started emphasizing learning how to save a life. There were no options apart from reading those huge books which would weigh more than a sack of rice and to practice the art of butchering. While I was a student, I would often hear doctors being referred to as a butcher. I used to get offended. But today, while I stand wrapped in my gown, with my patient completely sedated, lying down with his fate in my hands, I don’t feel less like a butcher. The only difference is we save lives.


Weeks after weeks, I started feeling strong and confident in what I did. The feeling of helping people cure their illnesses started growing on me. It was a magical land where drugs would do the magic and a surgery would cut the illness totally where and when required. I shifted from general surgery to orthopedics, and then kept moving to other departments as in the routine, and I could feel the magic of a scalpel until I entered the department of obstetrics and gynecology. Being in gynecology didn’t make me feel any different from being in any other surgical department. But what changed my complete mindset was the department of obstetrics.


My first few hours in obstetrics gave me a panic attack. I was in shock to see patients screaming in pain. I took a minute to see all around the department and realized this is something beyond the magic of a scalpel. I can’t help the ones crying for help. I just can not sedate them and cut them open to cure them. I felt very helpless. All I could do was console each and every mother and wait with them for the birth of their precious ones. I could see them struggling for hours together. And their struggle taught me to tranquilize my temper and be patient. After all, it was I, who could cheer them up and regain their confidence in the process they were going through. I could not wait to deliver a baby, but at the same time, I could not rush at any given cost.

Alas, it was time to conduct my first delivery. It was something I had to do without a scalpel. My hands had to be steady but tender. This time I was not about to cut an odious part of her body, but bring out the little one who has been growing in her womb for the past 9 months. This journey of mine continued for days together. I shared a very strong bond with each and every mother I came across. Each one was special. The joy of bringing another life into this world was incomparable to any other feeling I had ever felt. But as we all know, life is not a bed of roses. They always have thorns in it. And this time I was pricked by a thorn when I was informed I have to hold a scalpel in my hand once again. It was time for my first cesarean. Something I knew I would come across, but hoped I would never have to. Because unlike other surgeries, this one had another life struggling between my patient and my scalpel. I had to help protect a life unseen. As we painted and draped the patient, we prayed for the betterment of the little one who is yet to see the world. As we cut open in search of the juvenile soul, I could once again feel the pressure and fear which I had felt on the day of my very first surgery. This time the pressure had turned more intense and I had a sudden adrenaline rush to see the angel face safe. This was not something which was growing on me. Unlike my previous postings, this time I was not getting stronger with time, but I was definitely getting better with my skill. The task to get the mother and child safe from the surgery had become easier, but the worry I had before each every incision never reduced. I still pray before I start operating on a mother. I still feel the responsibility of keeping the mother and her offspring safe. There were sleepless nights, which I never regretted. Continuous duties which never stopped me. My journey in this department was like a roller coaster ride, where I  had numerous state of excitement which always encouraged me to move forward. I just wanted to stay back in the department, because for the very first time I felt like this is where I belonged.


It was my last day in the department as well as my last day as an intern. I had no emotions to express as I was going through my last few hours. That day we all sat together, recalled memories of our entire internship. All I could think of was how badly would I miss this department. As my seniors always used to say, this is when I would realize what my future holds for me, I agree with them, because  I have realized what I want my future to be.


Twelve months of the internship was nothing less than those twelve years of school life. We gradually learn as we grow. And that’s exactly what happened with me. It was the most difficult ‘goodbye’ of my life. Tears rolled then as they roll now while I conclude sharing my EXPERIENCE AS AN INTERN.



ANATOMY 10 years (2018-2017) question papers of 1st prof MBBS WBUHS

ANATOMY 10 years (2018-2017) question papers of 1st prof MBBS WBUHS


  Marks division

ANATOMY [Theory 140 + Practical 60 = Total 200 marks]


a) Written Exam (100) [paper I 50 + paper II 50]

 b) Oral (20)

  1. Bones 10 [axial 5 + appendicular 5]
  2. Viscera 10 [abdominal 5 + brain 5]

 c) Theory Internal Assessment (20)

[ Written exam + Oral + Internal assessment = 100+20+20 = 140 ]


a) Histology (15)

  1. Normal slide- 5
  2. Special slide- 4
  3. Notebook- 4
  4. cross section identification- 2

 b) Window dissection (10)

 c) Identification (8)

 d) Surface anatomy (4)

 e) Radiology (3)

 f) Practical Internal Assessment (20)


[ Histology + Window dissection + Identification + Surface anatomy + Radiology + Practical

Internal Assessment = 15+10+8+4+3+20 = 60 ]



                     Upper extremity

Group -A

  1. What are the palmar spaces? Describe the thenar muscles with their nerve supply and actions. (2017) P-1
    Enumerate the ligaments of shoulder joint. how the stability of the joint is maintained? Mention the nerve supply of the joint. Discuss the mechanism of elevation of arm above the hand. Which type of dislocation is common and why? (2016) P-1
  2. Describe the brachial plexus under the following heads: roots, trunks, divisions and chords. what do you mean by Erb’s point? Add a note on klumpke’s paralysis. (2015) P-1
  3. A 10 years old child had a fall on his out stretched hand and was diagnose to be suffering from supra condylar fracture of humerus. Describe the structures likely to be damaged what are the immediate and delay effect of said facture? (2015) P-1
  4. Describe the intrinsic muscle of hand. What is total claw hand? (2014) P-1
  5. Name the nerve involved in fracture of medial epicondyle of humerus. Describe course and distribution of the nerve beyond elbow. Mention motor and sensory distribution following its injury. (2013) P-1


  1. A man presents with neuromuscular disability following fracture of surgical neck of Humerus. Give a brief account of the nerve affected because of its most close relation to that part of the bone. From your knowledge of anatomy add a note on the motor and sensory defects that may arise. (2010) P-1
  2. A factory worker present with acute pain and swelling of central part of the palm of his right hand following infection of web space between middle and ring finger. Using your anatomical knowledge explain this complication. Write a brief note on the palmer space affected. (2009) P-1
  3. Following a street accident, a young man develops fracture of mid shaft of humerus. Discuss the distribution of nerve related to this part of the bone, while it passes through the arm. Add a note on its lesion while it is in relation to the spiral groove of the bone. (2008) P-1

Short Note

  1. Anatomical snuff box of hand. (2014) P-1
  2. Cephalic vein. (2013) P-1
  3. Quadrangular and triangular space. (2012) P-1
  4. Clavipectoral Fascia. (2010) P-1
  5. carpal tunnel. (2009) P-1
    Carpal Tunnel syndrome. (2008) P-1

Explain why

  1. Upper end of Humerus 1s an example of compound epiphysis. (2010) P-1
  2. Fracture of shaft of humerus causes wrist drop. (2017) P-1
  3. Tear of medial semilunar cartilage (meniscus) is more frequent than lateral semilunar cartilage (meniscus). (2015) P-1
  4. Carcinoma of inferomedial quadrant of mammary gland main spread to ovary. (2015) P-1
  5. Painful arc syndrome. (2014) P-1
  6. Clavicle is a modified long bone. (2013) P-1
  7. Injury to radial nerve in cubital fossa will not cause wrist drop. (2012) P-1
  8. Injury to long thoracic nerve causes winging of scapula. (2012) P-1
  9. A palpable nodule in axilla of an elderly lady should be properly cared. (2009) P-1
  10. Clavicle is a modified long bone. (2009) P-1
  11. Metastasis from carcinoma of inferior medial quadrant of breast may take place in pelvic cavity. (2008) P-1

                     Lower extremity

Group -A

  1. Describe the formation of rectus sheath. Name the contents of the sheath. What is the function of tendinous intersection and at which level they are present? (2016) P-1
  2. Describe the shutter mechanism of inguinal canal and anatomical difference between oblique and direct hernia. (2015) P-1
  3. Name the bones forming the knee joint. Describe the locking and unlocking movement of knee joint. (2014) P-1
  4. What are the muscles exposed after cutting Gluteus maximus? Name the nerves supplying these muscles. What are the actions of these muscles on Hip joint. (2012) P-1
  5. Following an automobile injury, a person lost his adductor movements of the leg. What is the nerve supplying the adductor groups of muscles of leg? Describe the nerve under the following heading: i) Origin. ii) Branches. iii) Distribution. (2011) P-1


  1. Describe the factors maintaining medial longitudinal Arch of foot. (2017) P-1
  2. Discuss the Tibialis posterior muscle. (2015) P-1
  3. Discuss different factors that maintain longitudinal arch of foot. What are the disadvantage of flat foot. (2013) P-1
  4. A bus conductor having prominent veins in his legs during standing position. What are the superficial veins present in the leg? What are the origin, termination and tributaries of short saphenous vein? What is varicosity of leg veins? (2011) P-1
  5. A factory worker presents with swollen painful Inguinal lymph nodes following an uncared wound at medial side of ankle. Explain this complication from your knowledge of anatomy. Write a brief note on Inguinal Lymph Nodes. (2010) P-1
  6. A child suffering from bilateral dislocation of hip joint. Mention the anatomical type of this location of hip state the factors mention the stability of hip joint. (2009) P-1
  7. An athlete while running, experienced severe clamps in his right thigh and was diagnosed as a case of Pulled hamstrings. Set the characteristics of Hamstrings. Mention the origin insertion nerve supply and actions of this group muscles. (2008) P-1

hort Note

  1. Short Saphenous vein. (2017) P-1
  2. Femoral sheath. (2013) P-1
  3. Deltoid ligament. (2011) P-1
  4. Popliteus muscle. (2010) P-1
  5. Deltoid ligament of Ankle. (2008) P-1

Explain why

  1. Sartorius is called as Tailors muscles. (2017) P-1
  2. Foot drop after fracture of neck of fibula. (2013) P-1
  3. Peroneus longus muscle has effect on both longitudinal as well as transvers arches of foot. (2010) P-1
  4. Injury of the superficial superior gluteal nerve shows posterior Trendelenburg sign. (2009) P-1
  5. Peroneus longus, while action along, has role on both transverse as well as longitudinal arches of foot. (2008) P-1


Group -A

  1. Give a brief amount of ureter. Mention its microscopic structure and development. Explain radiation of pain from loin to groin in ureteric colic. (2013) P-1
  2. A young married lady with a history of missed period, suddenly collapsed with sharp lower abdominal pain and was diagnosed having ruptured tubal pregnancy. What is the commonest site of tubal pregnancy and its fate. Mention the parts of this tube, blood supply, histological structure and development. (2012) P-1
  3. A 50 years old man was brought to the Out Patient Department (OPD) with a complaint of a swelling at the midline of anterior abdominal wall over an operative scar. Swelling was diagnosed to be incisional hernia through rectus sheath. i) Define the sheath. ii) Give its formations at different levels. iii) What are the contents of rectus sheath? Why is median incision not preferred over the anterior abdominal wall? (2011) P-1
  4. An old man suffering from carcinoma of Prostate presents with metastasis (secondary deposit) in vertebra. From your knowledge of anatomy explain this complication. Discuss briefly the capsules, lobes and relations of prostate gland. Add a note on interior of the organ. (2010) P-1
  5. Per vaginal examination of an elderly lady suffering from Pelvic Inflammatory Disease reveals collection of fluid in Pouch of Douglas. Write a note on this pouch with peritoneal as well as visceral relations of Uterus. Give a brief account of supports of the organ. (2010) P-1
  6. Young lady brought to the hospital emergency with acute pain in the lower abdomen and features of shock was diagnosed as a case of ruptured ectopic gestations. Mention the usual site of ectopic gestation discuss the gross anatomy development and micro anatomy of the organ involved. (2009) P-1
  7. During routine investigations, ultrasonography of whole abdomen of an adult healthy individual revealed incidence of horse-shoe shaped kidney. Explain the causes from your knowledge of embryology. Discuss briefly the development of kidney. Add a note on its clinical anatomy with congenital anomalies. (2008)P-1


  1. Describe lymphatic drainage of stomach. Why does Virchow lymph nodes get enlarged in carcinoma of stomach? (2017) P-1
  2. Describe the cervix uteri. What is its clinical importance? (2016) P-1
  3. Describe the common bile duct. What is Calot’s Triangle? (2016) P-1
  4. Describe the interior of anal canal with its is histological structure. (2015) P-1
  5. Describe the common bile duct in short. Important of Calot’s triangle. (2014) P-1
  6. Mention the factors that prevent gastro-oesophageal regurgitation. Give and histological structure of oesophagus. (2013) P-1
  7. Give an account of uterine cervix. Mention its lymphatic drainage. (2013) P-1
  8. Why ischiorectal abscess is very painful when abscess is superficial. Write boundary and content of fossa. (2012) P-1
  9. Name the false ligaments of the liver. State within which mesogastrium, development of liver takes place and what are the remnants of it? Write from which part of the gut liver bud develops? (2011) P-1
  10. Name the parts of the large intestine with their corresponding lengths in the adults. Describe the structure of the large gut with diagram. (2011) P-1
  11. A teen aged girl suffering from Acute appendicitis got initial attack of pain around umbilicus which was finally localised at right iliac fossa. State anatomical reason of pain in both the areas. Give an account of positions of Vermiform appendix. (2010) P-1
  12. After splenectomy operation due to rupture of spleen following intra abdominal injury, a patient develop diabetic mellitus. Explain the reason form your Anatomical knowledge. Discuss briefly the ligaments of spleen cut during operation. (2009) P-1
  13. Bouts of hematemesis, following cirrhosis of liver of a patient was diagnosed to be due to obstruction of portal venous system. Explain the causes from your knowledge of anatomy. Give a brief account of the Portal Vein with a note on Porto-caval anastomosis. (2008) P-1

Short Note

  1. Hesselbach’s Triangle. (2017) P-1
  2. Prosthetic part male urethra. (2015) P-1
  3. Internal trigons of urinary bladder. (2014) P-1
  4. Broad ligament of uterus. (2014) P-1
  5. Ovarian fossa on lateral Pelvic wall. (2013) P-1
  6. Epiploic foramen. (2012) P-1
  7. Mackenrodt’s ligament. (2012) P-1
  8. Left Renal Vein. (2011) P-1
  9. Epiploic foramen. (2011) P-1
  10. Ischial spine. (2009) P-1
  11. Hesselbach’s triangle. (2009) P-1
  12. Porto-caval anastasis. (2009) P-1
  13. Relation of head of pancreas. (2008) P-1

Explain why

  1. Appendix of testis is embryologically different form appendix of epididymis. (2017) P-1
  2. Pleural sac may be accidentally opened during exposure of the kidney from back. (2017) P-1
  3. Pubic tubercle is important landmark for femoral and inguinal hernia. (2016) P-1
  4. In prostatic carcinoma X-ray of lumbosacral vertebra to be avoided. (2016) P-1
  5. Dropping of the kidney is not followed by suprarenal gland. (2016) P-1
  6. Caput medusae. (2015) P-1
  7. Inner layer of myometrium acts as a living ligature of uterus during menstruation and parturition. (2015) P-1
  8. Varicocele of left testes is common. (2014) P-1
  9. Carcinoma of the head of the pancreas may produce jaundice. (2014) P-1
  10. Pain around umbilicus in case of acute appendicitis. (2013) P-1
  11. Cholecystitis causes pain in right shoulder. (2011) P-1
  12. A patient of cirrhosis of liver presents with Caput Medusa. (2010) P-1
  13. Pectinate line is an important landmark of anal canal. (2009) P-1
  14. Rupture of membranes part of urethra may cause extravasation of union in anterior abdominal wall. (2008) P-1
  15. Incidence of inguinal hernia is normal healthy individual is prevented by Shutter mechanism. (2008) P-1




Group -A

  1. Define pleura. Enumerate the parts of the pleura with their nerve supply. Describe the costomediatinal reflection of pleura. What is pleural effusion. (2015) P-2
  2. Describe the transverse pericardial sinus with development. What is the clinical importance of it? (2014) P-2
  3. Give an account of pleura. mention its nerve supply. What is the site of choice for insertion of needle to drain plural effusion and why? (2013) P-2


  1. Describe the origin, course and distribution of left coronary artery. what is angina pectoris? enumerate the sources of development of internal system. (2017) P-2
  2. Describe the coronary sinus of the heart with its tributaries and development. (2015) P-2
  3. Give an account of usual pattern of coronary artery supply of heart. What is coronary dominance? (2012) P-2
  4. A young patient presents with repeated vomiting and reflux on examination which was diagnosed as Diaphragmatic Hernia. Explain the Condition from your knowledge of anatomy. Give the origin, insertion & nerve supply of the diaphragm. (2011) P-2
  5. A patient with history of cough, fever and breathlessness is diagnosed to be a case of Pleural effusion. Give a brief account on parts of pleura with its recesses and nerve supply. (2010) P-2

Short Note

  1. Central tendon of diaphragm. (2015) P-2
  2. Ligamentum arteriosum. (2014) P-2
  3. Nerve supply of apical pleura. (2014) P-2
  4. Inlet of Thorax. (2013) P-2
  5. 1st intercostal nerve. (2012) P-2
  6. Ansa cervicalis. (2012) P-2
  7. Oblique sinus. (2011) P-2
  8. Constrictions of oesophagus (2008) P-2

Explain why

  1. Fibrous pericardium is fused with central tendon of the diaphragm. (2016) P-2
  2. Recurrent laryngeal nerve is both side present different course. (2016) P-2
  3. Central tendon of the thoraco-abdominal diaphragm is blended with the basal part of the fibrous pericardium. (2014) P-2
  4. Type of respiration in children is abdominal, whereas it is thoraco-abdominal in adult. (2012) P-2
  5. Segment 2 and segment 6 of lung are the sites of lung abscess. (2011) P-1
  6. Inter costal nerves other than 3rd to 6th are atypical. (2010) P-2
  7. Type of respiration in infants is abdominal, weather thoracic in adult females and thoraco-abdominal in adult male. (2009) P-2
  8. Right recurrent laryngeal nerve hook round right subclavian artery, whereas the left does round the ligamentous arteriosum. (2008) P-2


Group -A

  1. Describe the parotid gland under the following headings: i) Coverings ii) Relations of parotid gland iii) Nerve supply iv) Frey’s syndrome (2016) P-2
  2. A man suffering from hypertension bleeds from Little’s area of nose. Give an account of the formation, arterial supply, nerve supply & lining epithelium of nasal septum with a note on Little’s area. (2012) P-2
  3. Following thyroidectomy a patient may develop hoarseness of voice. Explain the statement. Give a brief account of intrinsic muscles of the larynx and their action on Rimaglottidis. (2012) P-2
  4. A child came to OPD with a complaint of injury to the external ear. On examination a perforation was found in the tympanic membrane. Discuss about the gross anatomy, arterial supply and nerve supply of the Tympanic membrane and the External auditory canal. (2011) P-2
  5. A person gives history of inability to close his mouth immediately after yawning. What is the anatomical basis behind it? Describe the muscles and ligaments related to the. anatomical site affected. (2011) P-2
  6. Following surgical operation of right sided parotid gland, a patient develops weakness of facial muscles of that side. State the relation of the affected cranial nerve with parotid gland. Give a brief account of functional components and intracranial course and distribution of the nerve. (2010) P-2
  7. Following operation on Thyroid gland, a patient developed hoarseness of voice. Give a brief note on muscle action on vocal cord and state from your knowledge of anatomy, what happened wrong with the patient. Discuss briefly the important relations and arterial supply as well as venous drainage of the thyroid gland. Mention what precautions, based on anatomical knowledge, are to be taken by a surgeon during operation on thyroid gland. (2008) P-2


  1. Enumerate the extraocular muscles with their nerve supply and functions. (2017) P-2
  2. Enumerate the muscles of soft palate and their nerve supply. What are the different types of cleft palate and how they are formed? (2016) P-2
  3. Name the components forming the Nasal Septum with a suitable diagram. What is Little area? (2015) P-2
  4. Name the paranasal air sinuses. Mention the factor that helps to drain out the content of the maxillary sinus. Why these sinuses are developed around the nose? (2014) P-2
  5. Name the muscles of the pharynx. Give their nerve supply. What is killian’s dehiscence. (2014) P-2
  6. Enumerate paired Venous system sinuses in skull. Write brief note on cavernous sinus. (2013) P-2
  7. Mention the boundaries of Pyriform fossa of pharynx and its sensory supply. What is the clinical importance of the fossa. (2013) P-2
  8. An old man presents with an ulcer along the margin of the tongue which was diagnosed as carcinoma of the tongue (Cancer). Which group of lymph nodes are likely to be enlarged? Discuss briefly the lymphatic drainage of the tongue. (2011) P-2
  9. During surgical operation on thyroid gland a surgeon must be careful to avoid injury to some nerves. Mention the components, distribution and effect of lesion of these nerves. (2010) P-2
  10. A boy presents discharge of pus through ear following recurrent infection in throat. Explain the clinical complication from your knowledge of anatomy. Write a brief note on the structures connecting with throat. (2009) P-2

Short Note

  1. Maxillary sinus. (2017) P-2
  2. Danger area of scalp. (2016) P-2
  3. Rima glottidis. (2016) P-2
  4. Bronchopulmonary segments of left lung. (2016) P-2
  5. Nasolacrimal duct. (2016) P-2
  6. Ciliary body. (2016) P-2
  7. Structure and nerve supply of tympanic membrane. (2015) P-2
  8. Pyriform fossa with clinical importance. (2014) P-2
  9. Dangerous area of scalp. (2014) P-2
  10. Temporomandibular joint. (2013) P-2
  11. Dangerous area of face. (2013) P-2
  12. Lacrimal apparatus. (2012) P-2
  13. Tympanic membrane. (2012) P-2
  14. Inlet of the Larynx. (2011) P-2
  15. Middle meatus of nose. (2010) P-2
  16. Iris (2008) P-2
  17. Middle meatus of nose (2008) P-2
  18. Inferior constrictor muscles of pharynx (2008) P-2


Explain why

  1. Cricoarytenoid posterior muscle is the safety muscles of the larynx. (2017) P-2
  2. Increase pressure of CSF in subarachnoid space is easily diagnosed by ophthalmoscopic examination of the eye. (2017) P-2
  3. Parotitis is very painful. (2017) P-2
  4. A child suffering from repeated throat infection has discharge of pass through ear. (2017) P-2
  5. A child suffering from acute tonsillitis main complaint of pain in the ears. (2015) P-2
  6. Danger area of the face. (2015) P-2
  7. Posterior cricothyroid muscles act as safety muscles of larynx. (2015) P-2
  8. Pain in is referred to the middle ear in ulcer of the posterior part of the tongue. (2014) P-2
  9. In tonsillitis pain is referred to middle ear. (2013) P-2
  10. Superior parathyroid are inferior in position. (2013) P-2
  11. Optic disc in eye ball is known as blind spot. (2013) P-2
  12. Posterior inferior quadrant of tympanic membrane is chosen for myringotomy. (2013) P-2
  13. Superior Parathyroid are inferior in position. (2011) P-2
  14. Entry of foreign bodies is commoner to the right bronchus. (2011) P-2
  15. Layer of loose connective tissue is known as Dangerous layer of scalp. (2010) P-2
  16. Vocal cord is considered as water-shed line of larynx. (2009) P-2
  17. Layer of loose connective tissue is called Dangerous layer of scalp. (2008) P-2
  18. Throat infection in child, if neglected, may leads to Mastoiditis. (2008) P-2



Group -A

  1. Describe cavernous sinus under following heading
    i) General information ii) Structure passing through sinus iii) Tributaries iv) Communications (2017) P-2
  2. Enumerate with fibres of the brain. Describe the internal capsule under the following heads. Parts with relations, fibres passing through different parts and blood supply. What is stroke? (2017) P-2
  3. What is atrial cycle of Willis? Describe the arterial supply of the superolateral surface of cerebral hemisphere. (2016) P-2
  4. Give an account of origin, course and distribution of oculomotor nerve. Explain the effects of oculomotor nerve lesion. (2015) P-2
  5. Give the arterial supply of supero-lateral surface of the brain. What is macular sparing. (2014) P-2
  6. Name the ventricle of brain. mention the boundaries and communications of third ventricle. What is hydrocephalus? (2013) P-2
  7. A patient is brought to physician presenting right sided ocular signs of ptosis, lateral strabismus, diplopia and loss of accommodation as well as light reflex with contralateral hemiplegia. From your knowledge of anatomy explain the lesion. Give a brief account of the cranial nerve affected. (2010) P-2
  8. Following ‘Stocks’ a man suffers from Weber’s syndrome with left right hemiplegia and ptosis, lateral strabismus and dilatation of pupil of right eye. Using your anatomical knowledge explain Weber syndrome and involvement of ocular muscles. Discuss briefly the extrinsic muscles of eyeball. (2009) P-2
  9. A person suffering from Parotid Tumour with malignant change gets complaints of Bell’s paralysis. Mention the anatomical change that occurred in Bell’s paralysis in this case. Discuss briefly the important relations structures in the interior and nerve supply of the Parotid Gland. (2008) P-2


  1. Describe the floor of the fourth ventricle with diagram. (2017) P-2
  2. Describe the wall and communications of 3rd What is non-communicating type hydrocephalus? (2016) P-2
  3. What are the different parts of the cerebellum? mention its blood supply. What is cerebellar ataxia.(2015) P-2
  4. Write a note on Internal Capsule of brain with its blood supply. What is hemiplegia? (2012) P-2
  5. A patient with increased intracranial tension presents with medial squint/strabismus. Explain the reason for medial squint. Give a brief account of anatomy of the structure involved. (2011) P-2
  6. CT scan of brain of a patient suffering from cerebrovascular accident shows lesion in Internal capsule of brain. State why this part of brain is called ‘internal capsule’. Mention the different fibres passing through the internal capsule. Add a note on its blood supply. (2010) P-2
  7. A man about 60 years suffer from cerebral ataxia following ventricular damage mention arterial supply and phylogenetic subdivision of cerebellum. What do you mean by cerebellar ataxia from your knowledge of anatomy? (2009) P-2
  8. A patient with Argyll Robertson’s Pupil presence persistence of accommodation reflex, but loss of light reflex. Discuss briefly the accommodation reflex pathway. State how can you justify the specific neurological deficit in this case. (2008) P-2
  9. Neglected infection in dangerous area of face of a patient need to Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis. State the reasons from your knowledge of anatomy. Mention the communication and anatomical basis of complication arising from structures related to the thrombosed sinus. (2008) P-2

Short Note

  1. Blood supply of spinal cord. (2017) P-2
  2. Spinal accessory nerve. (2017) P-2
  3. Speech area of the brain. (2015) P-2
  4. Otic ganglion. (2013) P-2
  5. Ciliary ganglion. (2012) P-2
  6. Spine of the Sphenoid. (2011) P-2
  7. Thalamic Nuclei. (2011) P-2
  8. Left coronary artery. (2010) P-2
  9. Boundaries and communications of Third Ventricle of Brain. (2010) P-2
  10. Circulation of aqueous humour. (2010) P-2
  11. Motor neurone of spinal cord. (2009) P-2
  12. Superior cervical ganglion. (2009) P-2
  13. Blood Brain Barrier (2008) P-2

Explain why

  1. Syringing of external ear may sometimes causes vasovagal attack of the patients. (2016) P-2
  2. Obliquely the length of the spinal nerve root increase progressively from above downward. (2016) P-2
  3. A patient of pituitary tumor suffer from by temporal hemianopia. (2016) P-2
  4. Increased intracranial pressure may cause medial squint. (2015) P-2
  5. In anterior spinal artery syndrome there is bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation but
  6. conscious proprioceptive sensations are preserved. (2015) P-2
  7. A pituitary tumour causes temporal hemianopia. (2014) P-2
  8. A patient having fracture of sphenoid sinus complain of loss of taste sensation at a later day. (2014) P-2
  9. Inflammation of parotid gland is very painful. (2014) P-2
  10. Macular vision is generally spared in lesion of posterior cerebral artery. (2012) P-2
  11. Optic nerve cannot regenerate after injury. (2012) P-2
  12. A patient of Pituitary tumour suffers from Bitemporal Hemianopia. (2010) P-2
  13. Lesions in pretectal nucleus of midbrain cause Argyll Robertson’s pupil. (2009) P-2
  14. Supranuclear type of Facial nerve lesion with two motors loss of lower part of face. (2009) P-2
  15. Visual defect due to occlusion of Posterior cerebral artery does not have effect on macular vision. (2008) P-2



  1. Describe the histology of classical hepatic lobule. What is a liver acinus? (2012) P-1


Short Note

  1. Transitional epithelium. (2016) P-1
  2. Difference between transitional epithelium and stratified squamous epithelium. (2014) P-1
  3. plasma cell. (2009) P-1
  4. Respiratory epithelium. (2009) P-2
  5. Light microscopic structure of lymph node. (2009) P-2


                      General anatomy


  1. Define long bone. Name the different part of young long bone. Describe the blood supply of the long bone. (2016) P-1
  2. What is metaphysis of a growing bone? Give its importance. (2014) P-1
  3. Mention the main structural characteristics of synovial joint. Classify synovial joint with example of each type (2012) P-1


Short Note

  1. (2017) P-1
  2. (2016) P-1
  3. (2016) P-1
  4. Cardiac muscles. (2015) P-1
  5. Turner’s syndrome. (2015) P-1
  6. Laws of ossification. (2015) P-1
  7. Non disjunction. (2013) P-1
  8. Epiphyseal cartilage. (2012) P-1
  9. Down’s syndrome. (2011) P-1
  10. (2011) P-1
  11. Klinefelter Syndrome. (2010) P-1
  12. Inter vertebral Disc. (2010) P-1
  13. Intervertebral disc. (2008) P-1


Explain why

  1. Spurt and shunt muscles. (2017) P-1
  2. (2014) P-1
  3. Barr body is present in Klinefelter syndrome. (2012) P-2
  4. Double Bar body in Klinefelter’s syndrome. (2011) P-1
  5. An elderly female (38 years) gave birth to a baby who is examined to be having a rounded face, epicanthic folds an a characteristic single palmar (simian) crease in the palm. Explain the genetic cause of the event. (2011) P-2


Group -A

  1. Describe the internal features of anal canal with epithelial lining of each division. Why the pectinate line is called the watershed line of the anal canal? What is the importance of Hilton’s line? Mention the development of anal canal. Define internal haemorrhoids and mention their common sites. (2017) P-1
  2. A child presents leakage of urine throw umbilicus from urinary bladder. Using your anatomical knowledge explain the congenital anomaly with a note of development of urinary bladder. Give a brief amount of features with relations, ligaments and nerve supply of the organ. (2009) P-1
  3. A new-born baby was found to have cleft palate with nasal regurgitation of milk during breastfeeding. Explain the congenital defect from your knowledge of anatomy with a brief note on development of soft palate. Give a brief amount of muscles of soft palate with its movement during deglutition. (2009) P-2
  4. An anxious lady complaints to her doctor that right scrotal sac of her new-born male baby is found empty. The case of is diagnosed as one of the anomalies of descent of testes. Write a brief note on descent of testes. Discuss various anomalies of descent. Explain how the descent of female gonad differ from that of male. (2008) P-1
  5. An anxious lady complaints to her doctor that right scrotal sac of her new-born male baby is found empty. The case of is diagnosed as one of the anomalies of descent of testes. Write a brief note on descent of testes. Discuss various anomalies of descent. Explain how the descent of female gonad differ from that of male. (2008) P-1


  1. Describe the derivatives of secondary mesoderm. (2017) P-1
  2. Classification of chromosomes on the basis of centrosomes. (2017) P-1
  3. Describe the derivatives of endothelial pharyngeal pouch. What is bronchial fistula? (2016) P-2
  4. Describe the development of placenta in short. What is placenta previa. (2014) P-1
  5. Give the development of atrioventricular septum. A pin pricked through the right side of the septum will reach which part of the heart? (2014) P-2
  6. What is primary defect in Fallot’s Tetralogy. Describe the development of interventricular septum. (2013) P-2
  7. Describe the development of tongue. Correlate the nerve supply of tongue with its development. (2012) P-2
  8. A child suffer from Fallot’s tetralogy. Mention anatomical features of this congenital anomaly. Write a brief note on development of Ventricular Septum. (2009) P-2
  9. A child, age 8 years with features of breathlessness on exertion and cyanosis since birth was diagnosed to be the case of Fallot’s Tetralogy. Explain the disorder from your knowledge of embryology. Write a note on development and blood supply of Inter ventricular septum. (2008) P-2

Short Note

  1. Anaphase Lag. (2017) P-1
  2. Meckel’s cartilage. (2017) P-2
  3. Bronchial cyst. (2017) P-2
  4. (2016) P-1
  5. Placenta previa. (2016) P-1
  6. Annular pancreas. (2016) P-1
  7. (2015) P-1
  8. Transposition of great vessels. (2015) P-2
  9. Meckel’s cartilage. (2015) P-2
  10. (2014) P-1
  11. Muscles of the first branchial arch with their nerve supply. (2014) P-2
  12. Styloid apparatus. (2014) P-2
  13. Placental barrier. (2013) P-1
  14. Bronchial cyst. (2013) P-2
  15. Umbilical Cord. (2012) P-1
  16. Development of the Soft Palate. (2011) P-2
  17. Physiological umbilical hernia. (2010) P-1
  18. Thyroglossal duct. (2010) P-2
  19. (2009) P-2
  20. Placenta previa. (2008) P-1

Explain why

  1. Transposition of great vessels. (2017) P-2
  2. New-born baby passes urine through umbilicus. (2016) P-1
  3. Imperforate anus. (2015) P-1
  4. A new-born baby presenting with imperforate anus. (2013) P-1
  5. Tracheo oesophageal fistula. (2012) P-1
  6. Monozygotic twins are identical whereas dizygotic twins are not identical. (2012) P-1
  7. Urinary fistula at the level of umbilicus in a new born baby. (2011) P-1
  8. Transposition of great vessels. (2011) P-2
  9. A patient is detected to have Horse shoe shaped kidney. (2010) P-1





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Marks Distribution
Total Marks 100 Pass Marks 50
Theory: 40 Marks
Pre & Para clinical subject
Group A Long question (No alternative): 10 Marks
Operative and Clinical question
Group B Short notes (Two out of three): 10 (5×2) Marks
Group C Long questions (One out of two): 10 Marks
Group D Short notes (Two out of three): 10 (5×2) Marks
Oral: 10 Marks
[Oral questions, Instruments, X-ray & other imaging]
Practical: 30 Marks
[Long case, Short case]
Internal Assessment: 20 Marks


Sorted Questions

1. Describe the anatomy of lacrimal apparatus with a labelled diagram. Enumerate the causes of
watering of eye. [2018]
2. Describe a schematic diagram of pupillary light reflex. Mention the drugs acting on pupil.
3. Describe anatomy and physiology of lens. What is mechanism of accommodation? [2016]
4. Discuss the theories of Aqueous Humour formation, circulation and drainage. [2015]
5. Describe the anatomy of the upper eyelid with a labelled diagram. [2014]
6. Describe the anatomy of physiological lens. What is the mechanism of accommodation?
7. Describe the pathway of light reflex with diagram. [2012]
8. Describe the anatomy of conjunctiva. [2011]
9. Discuss pupillary reactions with special reference to their basis and clinical significance.
10. Describe the origin, insertion, nerve supply and action of extra ocular muscles. [2009]


1. Describe symptoms, signs and management of acute attack of angle closure glaucoma. [2018]
2. A 65 years old patient presented with gradual painless dimness of vision in both eyes during
last 2 years. Discuss the differential diagnosis and management. [2018] {Hint: D/D- Senile
cataract, POAG, Age related macular degeneration, Diabetic retinopathy, Presbyopia, Degenerative
myopia, Retinitis pigmentosa}
3. What is Keratoplasty? What are types? How will you collect the donor cornea and how will
you preserve it? [2017] {Hint: Keratoplasty = Corneal transplantation}
4. Enumerate the postoperative complications of cataract surgery. Briefly outline the treatment
of any one of them. [2017] {Hint: Most common late complication of ECCE is posterior capsular
5. What is chronic dacryocystitis? Describe the steps of dacryocystorhinostomy. [2016] {HintDacryocystitis = inflammation of lacrimal sac}

6. How do you prepare a patient before cataract operation? How to predict the outcome of
cataract surgery? [2016]
7. Describe in brief the management of a case of a bacterial corneal ulcer. How would you treat
a non-healing ulcer? Enumerate the complications of corneal ulcer. [2015]
8. What are causes of seeing rainbow halo around light? Describe the management of one such
case having severe pain in the eye. [2015] {Hint: Causes of rainbow halo include Angle closure
glaucoma, Immature cataract & Mucopurulent conjunctivitis; out of these acute attack of angle closure
glaucoma is extremely painful}
9. Enumerate the possible causes of sudden painful dimness of vision in a 35 years old female
patient. Briefly discuss the signs, symptoms and management of any one of the cause. [2014]
{Causes include Acute attack of angle closure glaucoma, Acute keratitis, Acute Iridocyclitis, Orbital apex
syndrome, Chemical or thermal burn etc.}
10. A 7 years old boy was hit by a cricket ball in one eye. Enumerate possible damage in each of
the ocular structures expected in such a case. Describe the options for treatment to each
injury. [2014] {Hint: Blunt trauma}
11. A patient comes with Rainbow haloes. How do you diagnose the case? [2013] {Hint:
Differentiated by Fincham’s stenopaeic slit test, irrigating discharge etc.}
12. Enumerate the causes of night blindness. Write down the clinical features and management of
Vitamin A deficiency. [2013] {Hint: Causes include Vitamin-A deficiency/ xerophthalmia, Retinitis
pigmentosa, High myopia, Open angle glaucoma, Nuclear cataract etc.}
13. What are the causes of red eye? Write in brief about their differential diagnosis with
management. [2012] {Hint: Causes of red eye include Conjunctivitis, Keratitis, Acute iridocyclitis, Acute
angle closure glaucoma, Episcleritis, Scleritis, Subconjunctival haemorrhage etc.}
14. Describe the effect of blunt trauma on the eye. [2012]
15. Same as 8. [2011]
16. Describe the signs, symptoms and management of acute iridocyclitis. [2011] {Hint: Iridocyclitis
= anterior uveitis}
17. How would you diagnose a case of open angle glaucoma and follow up such a patient? [2010]
18. Write down the causes of gradual painless loss of vision and their management. [2009]
19. What is intraocular pressure? Mention conditions where intraocular pressure is low. [2009]
{Hint: Causes of hypotony include Chronic uveitis, Recent penetrating injury, Wound leak, Post-surgical
(e.g. trabeculectomy), Choroidal detachment, Retinal detachment etc.}



1. Myopia [2015, 2009], Pathological Myopia [2014, 2011], Treatment of myopia [2018]
2. Hypermetropia [2012]
3. Presbyopia [2017]
4. Vernal Conjuctivitis [2011], Clinical features of vernal keratoconjunctivitis [2013]
5. Phlyctenular conjunctivitis [2017]
6. Red eye [2010]
7. Pterygium [2015], Management of recurrent pterygium [2017]
8. Bacterial Corneal Ulcer [2012]
9. Hypopyon corneal ulcer [2016]
10. Removal of corneal foreign body [2013]
11. Paracentesis [2016]
12. Indications of keratoplasty [2009], Eye banking and keratoplasty [2015]
13. Staphyloma [2016, 2012]
14. Keratic precipitates [2018, 2009]
15. Endophthalmitis [2018]

16. Panophthalmitis [2014]
17. Evisceration [2014, 2012]
18. Hypermature cataract [2009], Morgagnian Cataract [2011]
19. Capsulotomy in cataract extraction [2011]
20. SICS [2013]
21. Biometry [2018, 2012]
22. Early postoperative complications following cataract surgery [2009]
23. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) [2017]
24. Buphthalmos [2017]
25. Field changes in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma [2015]
26. Phacolytic glaucoma [2016]
27. Trabeculectomy [2014]
28. Vitreous haemorrhage [2010]
29. Diabetic Retinopathy [2011]
30. Retinoblastoma [2016]
31. Enucleation [2018, 2011]
32. Binocular Vision [2013]
33. Management of estropia in a 2 year old [2010]
34. Entropion [2013]
35. Symblepharon [2014]
36. Epiphora [2015]
37. Syringing of the Lacrimal passage [2012]
38. Acute Dacryocystitis [2013]
39. Symptoms, signs and management of a case of chronic dacryocystitis [2010]
40. Dacryocystorhinostomy [2009]
41. Alkali burn of eye [2018]
42. Anti-glaucoma drugs [2016]
43. Side effects of topical corticosteroids [2010]


44. Use of laser in eye [2014]
45. Nutritional blindness [2017]
46. Vision 2020 [2015]
47. Various methods of determination of visual acuity [2010]

N.B. Chapter division is based on “Comprehensive Ophthalmology by A K Khurana”

What People in India think about Doctors !!

What People in India think about Doctors !!

Well you may be wondering that this article may highlight the glorious history of Indian medicine and how people in India should appreciate  that. But well lets just say thats not the scenario presently. Lets just say it is one of the most respected career options available in India. People are trying hard to crack the entrance exams to be in this. But the weird thing is that very parent who is actually criticising the doctors admits his/her child in the best coaching institute so that entering into that very profession becomes easy. So you can say a lot of bad things but at the end of the day you unknowingly admit that they are still the saviours of the society. That means people do not actually think that way but they are made to believe certain things by some group of people. now lets think about the so called “Group of People” who are spreading a poison in our profession.

Is it the biased media who considers themselves greater than any doctor and apparently end up channeling an artery?

or is it the fake doctors who are practicing in reputed institutions 

Or is it the local goons who just waits for a moment to take out their frustration on Doctors maybe because he was unable to save an 80 yr old chronic alcoholic with liver cirrhosis . ?

Or is it our very own system who actually makes a doctor work for 10-20 hours continuously ?


All these poisons have actually misguided people about us. We still do work as hard as possible. We sacrifice our own lives for the betterment of society. So lets hope for a day when people will again start admitting that they do respect us and more importantly they need us when their mind will be free from all the influences . Then will be a time when you actually wont be hearing people mumbling behind our backs…you wont actually feel the need for greater security during a night duty… will finally be happy after seeing “That Smile” in the innocent face of a child who will actually admire you after you had treated him .

Lets hope for a better future…

Difference between Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

Difference between Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

The question is Comment on the Difference between Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia.

Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia are two related terms often both occurs together causing enlargement of the organ or tissue. But they are not similar terms. Both are caused by increase functional demand or by hormonal influence. They has a basic difference.


Hypertrophy – Increase in the size of the cell . Number of cells unchanged.

Hyperplasia – Increase in the number of cells. Size of the cells unchanged.

Morphological Changes:-

Hypertrophy – Increase synthesis of DNA, RNA. Increase protein Synthesis. Increase number of cell organelles like mitochondria.

Hyperplasia – Increase number of cells due to increase rate of DNA synthesis

Types: – 


a. Physiological :

Enlarged size of uterus in pregnancy.

Increased muscle mass in Body Builders.

b. Pathological : 

i) Adaptive: Hypertrophy of Cardiac, Smooth and Skeletal Muscle

ii) Compensatory: Hypertrophy of compensatory organ on removal of contralateral organ. Nephrectomy of one kidney causes hypertrophy of the other.


a. Physiological : 

i) Hormonal –

1. Hyperplasia of breast at puberty, during lactation and pregnancy

2. Hyperplasia of prostate in Old age,

3. Hyperplasia of pregnant uterus.

ii) Compensatory: Hyperplsia occurs when a part of an organ or the contralateral organ in case of paired organ is removed.

  1. Regeneration of liver following partial hepatectomy.
  2. Hyperplasia of the other kidney following nephrectomy on one side.
  3. Regeneration of epidermis after skin abarasion

b. Pathological : 

i) Hormonal –

  1. Endometrial Hyperplasia
  2. Benign Prostaic hyperplasia
  3. Hyperplasia of thyroid in thyrotoxicosis

ii) Irritation –

  1. Hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue in infections
  2. Intraductal epithelial hyperplasia in fibrocystic changes in breast.
  3. Epidermal Hyperplasia – Skin warts due to HPV, Pseudocarcinamatous hyperplasia at the margin of non-healing ulcer.
Average salary of a doctor in India – Recent Study

Average salary of a doctor in India – Recent Study

Some killer facts about salary of a Indian Doctors, how much the doctors earn in India. Doctors are the most respected persons in a society. These noble persons are regarded as “The living God”.  They are some most paid professionals with high salary compared to other professionals. Salary of doctor in India or monthly income varies from Rs.30,000 to Rs.50 lakhs per month. There are doctors with highest tax payers to poor doctors supported by parents for a living. So, there are no fixed salary for a medical professional in India.  These are some general queries about salary of doctor in India often asked by general people to growing baby doctors. Here everything will be discussed about salary of doctors in India. Definitely as a developing country with low GDP, PPP Indian Doctors get low salary compared to USA medical professionals. Salary of doctor in India varies depending upon several factors like Country, Place of work, Type of Specialization, Type of sector – government or private , Skills of the doctor , Experience, Strategies with Personal setup and others.

Some facts about salary of doctor in india –

  1. There are only one doctor present for serving One thousand five hundred people.
  2. 48,180 hours are needed to be a doctor to earn 48K per month.
  3. A Intern can work continuously for 68hours.
  4. A MBBS doctor works 18hrs a day.
  5. The highest paid interns earn 50 paisa per second that is 30 Rupees a hour.
  6. If a doctor start a nursing home he can buy a new BMW every month.
  7. Government spent 24 lakhs to produce one MBBS doctor.
  8. Sometime, A medical seat in private medical college costs 5 cr.

Here I will mainly discuss about the salary of doctor in India with several dependencies.

Time table for a doctor to earn 60K+ in a month – A doctor who has spent 5.5 years for a MBBS degree. If he is too lucky, hardworking and brilliant and passes the Postgraduate entrance in one attempt then he has to give 3 years for MD and let us assume 5 years for experience. So, he has to give 13.5 years of life to earn 60,000 rupees per month – salary of doctor in India who has passed MD.

MBBS Course – 4.5 years.

Internship – 1 year.

MD – 3 years.

Experience – 5 years.

Total – 13.5 years

Number of doctors present in India – Number of doctors present in India are very low compared to other countries like it’s neighbor China. There are 1.9 doctors present for 1000 Chinese but for India it is 0.7 doctors for one thousand people of India. It means there are 7 doctors for 10000 Indians. So, statistics said that 1450 Indians are dependent on one doctor. It is clear picture of India’s poor health service. If you consider United Kingdom and United States the ratio of Doctor and Patient is quite high compared to India. Spain has an absolutely high Doctor to Patient Ratio. DP ratio of Spain is 4.9. Spain has one doctor serving 200 citizens of the country.

Doctor and Patient Ratio in different parts of the world:

Country: India

Doctor : Patient Ratio = 0.7

Patient dependent on One Doctor = 1450

Country: China

Doctor : Patient Ratio = 1.88

Patient dependent on One Doctor = 550

Country: United State

Doctor : Patient Ratio = 2.52

Patient dependent on One Doctor = 400

Country: United Kingdom

Doctor: Patient Ratio = 2.92

Patient dependent on One Doctor = 350

Country: Spain

Doctor: Patient Ratio = 4.87

Patient dependent on One Doctor = 200


Salary of intern doctors in different states of India

Assam – ₹14,000 per month

Andhra Pradesh – ₹10,000 per month

Bihar – ₹14,000 per month

Bengal – ₹18,000 per month

Chhattisgarh – ₹10,000 per month

Delhi – ₹15,000 per month

Gujrat – ₹9,500 per month

Himachal Pradesh – ₹12,000 per month

Jammu – ₹7,000 per month

Karnataka – ₹ 22,000 per month

Maharashtra – ₹8,500 per month

Madhya Pradesh – ₹8,000 per month

Orissa – ₹15,500 per month

Punjab – ₹10,000 per month

Rajasthan – ₹7,000 per month

Tripura – ₹10,500 per month

Uttar Pradesh – ₹9,500 per month


Post MBBS- Rs. 10,000 to 40,000/month (5.5 years of training)

Post MD/MS – Rs. 30,000 to 2,00,000/ month ( 9-12years of training)

Post DM/Mch/Fellowship – Rs. 50,000 to 3,00,000/month. (12-15 years of training)


Radiologists 1.5 -3.5 lakhs.

Gynecologist 1 – 2.5 lakhs

Pediatrician 1 – 2  lakhs

Orthopaedician 1 – 2 lakhs

Orthopaedician  surgeon– 1.5 to 26 lakhs

Anesthesia 1 – 2 lakhs

General Physician 1 – 2  lakhs

General Surgery  1 – 1.75 lakhs

Ophthalmologist – 80k – 1.75 lakhs

Pathologist doctor – 9.0 to 10.0 lakhs

Dermatologist doctor – 9.0 to 10.0 lakhs

Microbiologist doctor – 4.0 to 5.0 lakhs



Cardiology 3.5 – 7 lakhs / month

Neurology 2.5 – 6.5 lakhs / month

Urology 1.7 – 5.5 lakhs / month


Related Posts:

  1. Physiotherapist doctor surgeon fresher salary – 1.5 to 5 lakhs
  2. Staff Nurse fresher salary – 1.0 to 5 lakhs
  3. Pharmacist fresher salary – 1.5 to 7.00 lakh
  4. Dentist doctor fresher salary – 1.5 to 18.00 lakh
  5. Biomedical Engineer fresher salary – 1.0 to 5.00 lakh
  6. Medical Transcriptionist fresher salary – 1.0 to 2.0 lakhs
  7. Medical Coder fresher salary – 1.0 to 2.0 lakhs
  8. Medical Writer fresher salary – 1.0 to 2.0 lakhs
  9. Accounts Receivable Analyst fresher salary – 1.0 to 2.0 lakhs
  10. Medical Biller fresher salary – 1.0 to 1.5 lakhs


Strategies with personal setup:

The following strategies can make a doctor earn money quickly and effieciently.

Private Practice – Private practicing is the way most of the doctors earn a lot.

Commission from pharmacy and labs – Doctors earn by getting commission from different pharmacy and laboratory.

Investment – If you invest some penny in your business you are the winner.

Private setup – Setting up a private nursing home gives you the choice to have a new car every 3 weeks.

Marketing skills – Your marketing skill will help you make a comfortable zone to have good no of customer.

Professional skill – Finally your professional skill is the thing you can really sell to earn a lot of money



Eye Surgeon: 15,000-30,000 Yuan a month.

Heart Surgeon: (Cardiology): 20,000 to 50,000 Yuan a month.

Regular Doctor: At least 5,000 Yuan a month.

Other Doctor Professions: 5,000 to 10,000 Yuan a month


Story of poor doctors:

The story of Hemang Sanghvi, a gold medallist plastic surgeon of Bangalore Medical College is demoralizing for the society of baby doctors and aspirants. The doctor has to work for 18 hours a day to get a salary of 30,000 per month. He is unable to afford a home and the institution has not provided a house for him. He has to live in the Men boy’s hostel of the Medical College. This is same story of 300 other doctors.


Experience in first year MBBS final Anatomy practical exam

Experience in first year MBBS final Anatomy practical exam

A knowledge in anatomy is like a dead weight if we do not know how to apply the knowledge with successful skill. My experience in first year MBBS is quite good.Anatomy is really a hard subject for first year students because you never read about it like two other subjects like Physiology and Biochemistry. Our school teacher used to tell us that you have entered into a sea when we were in class eleven, But we are now really understanding what actually a sea is. The sea we were used to think are now like a small pond. Every wise person said that Practical part of the anatomy is more important than theory. I am sharing my experience in first year mbbs anatomy practical examination.

“I will turn human anatomy into roses and stars and sea. I will dissect the beloveds body in metaphor.” – Siri Hustvedt in The Summer Without Men

I know syllabus of human anatomy is like counting number of stars and amount of water in sea but if you love it like you love the beauty and smell of a  living rose – you are going to be a genius. I am writing another quotes which sounds funny.

“No man should marry until he has studied anatomy and dissected at least one woman.” – Honoré de Balzac

He had told like this to express that it is impossible to understand a woman. But if he really tried to learn anatomy- ever read the Grey’s anatomy, he would not said like this. If People have to study anatomy in order to get married – then – I like to hear your comment in this regard. It’s really a long debate.

So, I had the Anatomy practical exam. There was one day gap between two practical exam. Anatomy was next to Physiology practical exam. So, I had to focus on important chapters of anatomy and obviously my most favorite Atlas of anatomy utilizing most of the day. It was a amazing experience in first year mbbs anatomy practical examination.

The Day of Exam (experience in first year mbbs) 

Journey from Hostel room to Anatomy Hall – some unexpected moments 

Moments in the morning The day was luckily unlucky – Sometimes my luck favored but mostly luck was not with me. I was forced to wake up at 6:35 AM in the morning by me though alarm was set for 7 AM. And after some unorganized last minute view of Histology slides, I got ready and prepared my bag with with few  books, color pencils, pen etc. Then I see my white apron was staring at me curiously hanging from a overpopulated rope. I thanked myself for remembering that as I am a experienced and expert in forgetting.

Crisis in the road – It was 9:15 and I hurried for auto, taking a cake from canteen as usually I do. I was in hurry and there was auto but fully loaded there was no space for a single poor man. After few minutes a auto came and there was a space. But around ten people were struggling for  the single seat without showing any sympathy with this fighter. Waited for another 10 min with red face with anger in every cell like the Angry Bird and finally, I managed to get a seat and now I was the winner of the battle, feeling proud for myself. I traveled the 3/4th of the road very smoothly but suddenly paused but time was not paused. It’s cost was only 5 min, I had to pay. I started running, reached the college at 9:45. My heart was beating very fast as it wanted to come out from by body. I was feeling my apex beat like a novice drummer practicing with a hammer inside my chest.

The incidents that took place inside the anatomy hall – usual or unusual 

At last I entered the anatomy hall with gathering some confidence with in me. I was trying to charge mind but past experience was haunting my mind in the staircase. Head of the Department mam had already scolded me for the same reason.  It was my good luck for that day.

Histology exam experience – Histology exam started at 10:30 am, Histology notebooks were taken. I am telling seriously that I had some type of allergy in Histology notebook.  In Histology exam you have to identify 5 slides with two points and a special slide which you have to  draw only. Viva will be asked from the special slide . There was no problem in identifying the five slides and also the special slide. I was happy and did not hear any mishap from my fellow batch mates though 2 or 3 people mis-identified and later corrected with HOD’s solid snub.

Other six exam tables – After Histology, you have the freedom to choose any one of the following tables- Identification, Radiology & Surface Marking, Bones, Viscera and dissection window. Histology exam is conducted by fully internal team of Anatomy department but now it is the time for facing external.

My first choice Window – There was two cadavers one in supine and one in prone position. You have to give exam for one window. Normally you have to pick one card by lottery. The name of the window is written in the card. If you are lucky enough you get the chance to play with your luck again if the sir or mam conducting the lottery has some sympathy for you.

Luck didn’t favor this time – But actually what happened, the lottery was conducted by a really good and sympathetic mam. I was in a small queue behind two. They did no lottery just told what they want and mam gave the same card to them. My mind and heart was bouncing like a spring to get my most wanted, most practiced, most studied  Femoral triangle.  But, when my turn came another mam came to assist her. I told mam my choice. But mam was completely changed. The mam came like a negative inducer and I was ordered to choose from the bunch of cards. I choose a card and it was not for me, I have not done this before I told. The second mam started her mouth which I denied to hear and requested for another choice. First mam gave me the chance warning that it was my last chance. I did and and yes I got “Cubital fossa” a hot thing.

On spot preparation – I went for the cubital fossa there was no one for it. External sir was taking exam of a other fortunate who were first in the queue. I got the time as I required to prepare myself extra time to discuss with others who got the same.

We both enjoyed the Cubital Fossa – My turn came, Sir asked me to show roof, floor, boundaries, nerves, vessels everything and some clinical questions that I answered properly. I was happy to make sir happy but happiness came to anger when I came to know that sir gave 6.5 for good answers and 6 for moderate to bad answers. Actually they gave average number for experience in first year mbbs.

Identification, not a problem – Then I preferred to go for identification and waited for my turn sir pointed his forceps to  vessels, nerves, structures, viscera’s, muscles. I identified and answered carefully. Very good experience in first year mbbs practical exam.

Radiology and surface marking was my next choice I got a token of a line and a point frontal air sinus and 9th costal cartilage respectively. Examiner asked me few questions from occipito-mental view of skull.

V for Viscera – I gave the Viscera exam confidently. Brian, lung, tongue, cerebellum etc was given to me and I tried my best to satisfy the teacher. My total experience in first year mbbs dissection classes for viscera works fine.

Studying bones proved useless – The examination of bone was my last exam and the examiner’s too. We were three left for the exam. So as a team of three got confidence but he picked up the section of a bone. Giving half of the sectioned bone asked some definitions. He wanted us to tell “The exact definition written in the book” we failed to satisfy him. No anatomical position, no bony features, no attachment – studying these all things proved truly useless for the exam – a nice experience in first year mbbs.

It was my experience in first year mbbs and It was truly my last exam for anatomy, I successfully passed the first year and now trying to study the anatomy of second year that is Pharmacology.

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