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Recommended Anatomy books list MBBS free medical ebooks and pdfs

Recommended Anatomy books list MBBS free medical ebooks and pdfs

Recommended anatomy books for MBBS undergraduate students. These are the recommended books for anatomy.

Textbook of Anatomy : Vishram Singh

Snell clinical anatomy

Clinically oriented anatomy KLM:

Snell neuroanatomy:

Di fiore atlas of histology:

Grays clinical anatomy

Netter atlas of human anatomy

Langman embryology

BRS Anatomy

High Yield Embryology

BD Chaurasia All Books

Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy

Manual of Practical Anatomy

Last’s Anatomy Clinically Oriented Anatomy By Keith L Moore

TEXTBOOK OF CLINICAL NEUROANATOMY VISHRAM SINGH

 

Difference between Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

Difference between Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

The question is Comment on the Difference between Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia.

Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia are two related terms often both occurs together causing enlargement of the organ or tissue. But they are not similar terms. Both are caused by increase functional demand or by hormonal influence. They has a basic difference.

Defination:-

Hypertrophy – Increase in the size of the cell . Number of cells unchanged.

Hyperplasia – Increase in the number of cells. Size of the cells unchanged.

Morphological Changes:-

Hypertrophy – Increase synthesis of DNA, RNA. Increase protein Synthesis. Increase number of cell organelles like mitochondria.

Hyperplasia – Increase number of cells due to increase rate of DNA synthesis

Types: – 

Hypertrophy

a. Physiological :

Enlarged size of uterus in pregnancy.

Increased muscle mass in Body Builders.

b. Pathological : 

i) Adaptive: Hypertrophy of Cardiac, Smooth and Skeletal Muscle

ii) Compensatory: Hypertrophy of compensatory organ on removal of contralateral organ. Nephrectomy of one kidney causes hypertrophy of the other.

Hyperplasia

a. Physiological : 

i) Hormonal –

1. Hyperplasia of breast at puberty, during lactation and pregnancy

2. Hyperplasia of prostate in Old age,

3. Hyperplasia of pregnant uterus.

ii) Compensatory: Hyperplsia occurs when a part of an organ or the contralateral organ in case of paired organ is removed.

  1. Regeneration of liver following partial hepatectomy.
  2. Hyperplasia of the other kidney following nephrectomy on one side.
  3. Regeneration of epidermis after skin abarasion

b. Pathological : 

i) Hormonal –

  1. Endometrial Hyperplasia
  2. Benign Prostaic hyperplasia
  3. Hyperplasia of thyroid in thyrotoxicosis

ii) Irritation –

  1. Hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue in infections
  2. Intraductal epithelial hyperplasia in fibrocystic changes in breast.
  3. Epidermal Hyperplasia – Skin warts due to HPV, Pseudocarcinamatous hyperplasia at the margin of non-healing ulcer.
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