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Benefits of Breastfeeding

Benefits of Breastfeeding

What is breast milk?
It is the milk produced in the mammary gland (breast) by a lactating women during pregnancy to feed the child.

Why is breast milk important for the baby?
Breast milk is important because:
1. It is species appropriate milk. Human milk is meant for human babies.
2. It contains exactly the right levels of nutrients that the baby needs, unlike the formula which is present in cow’s milk and tailored to a calf.
3. It contains long chain fatty acids required for are essential for human brain growth,which are not included in most formulas.
4. It contains antibodies against disease and white blood cells for the immune system, which is also not present in formula.
5. It fulfils a baby’s biological need to breast feed from it’s mother and helps to safeguard the baby’s emotional health throughout life.
6. Breast feeding mother’s  don’t get as much breast cancer as mother’s who have never breast fed.

How is the breast milk produced?
Under the influence of the hormones prolactin and oxytocin, women produce milk after childbirth to feed the baby. The Milk ejection reflex mechanism-  The milk is transported from the breast alveoli to the nipple sucked by the baby which stimulates the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus which signals to the posterior pituitary gland to produce oxytocin. Oxytocin stimulates contraction of the Myoepithelial cells surrounding the alveoli which already holds the milk. The increased pressure causes milk to flow through the duct system and get released through the nipple. This response can be conditioned, for example to the cry of the baby.

A healthy mother will produce about 500 to 800 ml of milk per day with about 500 kilo calorie per day.

What is the composition of Breast milk?


Composition of human breast milk-
Fat (g/100 ml)-
•total 4.2
•fatty acids – length 8C trace
•polyunsaturated fatty acids 0,6
•cholesterol 0,016
Protein (g/100 ml)
•total 1.1
•casein 0.4
•a-lactalbumin 0.3
•lactoferrin (apolactoferrin) 0.2
•IgA 0.1
•IgG 0.001
•lysozyme 0.05
•serum albumin 0.05
•ß-lactoglobulin
Carbohydrate (g/100 ml)
•lactose 7
•oligosaccharides 0.5
Minerals (g/100 ml)
•calcium 0.03
•phosphorus 0.014
•sodium 0.015
•potassium 0.055
•chlorine 0.043
Breast milk contains complex proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other biologically active components. The composition changes over a single feed as well as over the period of lactation.

What is colostrum?


The initial milk produced is referred to as colostrum, which is high in the immunoglobulin IgA, which coats the gastrointestinal tract. This helps to protect the newborn until its own immune system is functioning properly. It also creates a mild laxative effect, expelling meconium and helping to prevent the buildup of bilirubin (a contributory factor in jaundice). Colostrum will gradually change to become mature milk. In the first 3–4 days it will appear thin and watery and will taste very sweet; later, the milk will be thicker and creamier. Human milk quenches the baby’s thirst and hunger and provides the proteins, sugar, minerals, and antibodies that the baby needs.

What are the diseases preventable by breast milk?
In addition to providing essential nourishment to infants, human milk; i.e., breast milk, has a number of valuable uses, especially medicinal uses, for both children and adults. It has been used medicinally for thousands of years.

Breast milk contains strong antibodies and antitoxins that many people believe promote healing and better overall health. However, breast milk lacks sterile and antiseptic properties if a nursing mother is infected with certain communicable diseases, such as HIV and CMV, as breast milk can transmit such diseases to infants and other people. Breast milk has been used as a home remedy for minor ailments, such as conjunctivitis, insect bites and stings, contact dermatitis, and infected wounds, burns, and abrasions. Breast milk has also been used alternatively to boost the immune system of ill persons having  viral gastroenteritis, influenza, the common cold, pneumonia, etc., because of its immunologic properties.

However, breast milk should never be seen or construed as a “cure-all”. Some medical experts are convinced that breast milk can induce apoptosis in some types of cancer cells. However, more research and evidence are needed in this area of cancer treatment.

What is the right time to start breastfeeding?
Breastfeeding should ideally start within 1hour after your baby is born for all conditions including normal delivery, forcep delivery and cesarean section delivery. A baby is usually alert after birth and will spontaneously seek the breast if left undisturbed in skin-to-skin contact with their mother’s body.
For Normal delivery cases:-
Breastfeeding within the first hour or so after birth is important because:

  1. It makes you as the mother more confident that you can breastfeed.
  2. Your baby starts to receive the immunological effects of colostrum.
  3. Your baby’s digestion and bowels are stimulated.
  4. Sucking reflex is higher during this period. so sucking difficulties can be avoided if the baby feeds properly at this stage.
  5. The bond between you and your baby is enhanced.

For Cesarean section
The first breastfeed may occur in the operating room with the baby passed under the sterile drapes while you are being stitched up. When this is not possible, it will commonly occur in the recovery room, as soon as possible after delivery, or as soon as you return to your room.
Benefits of breastfeeding after C-section:

  • Improves neurological development of the baby’s brain.
  • Benefits the newborn’s cardiovascular health.
  • Stabilizes the infant’s body temperature due to the skin-to-skin contact during breastfeeding.
  • Helps establish a healthy breastfeeding behavior and effective suckling by the infant.
  • Boosts the production of milk.
  • Provides optimum maternal satisfaction.

What are conditions when you should not breast feed your child?
Breastfeeding is NOT advisable if one or more of the following conditions is true:

  1. An infant diagnosed with galactosemia, a rare genetic metabolic disorder.
  2. The infant whose mother:
    ~ Has been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
    ~ Is taking antiretroviral medications.
    ~ Has untreated, active tuberculosis.
    ~ Is infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or type II.
    ~ Is using or is dependent upon an illicit drug.
    ~ Is taking prescribed cancer chemotherapy agents, such as antimetabolites that interfere with DNA replication and cell division.
    ~ Is undergoing radiation therapies; however, such nuclear medicine therapies require only a temporary interruption in breastfeeding.
Obstetrics & Gynaecology 10 years question paper for 3rd prof part2 WBUHS

Obstetrics & Gynaecology 10 years question paper for 3rd prof part2 WBUHS

Download pdf Link

Recent Marks Distributions of WBUHS

❤Obstetrics & Gynaecology

A. Theory examination 80 marks (2 paper1st paper 40 marks + 2nd paper 40 marks)

Paper I Obstetrics & Social Obstetrics
Paper II Gynaecology, FW & Demography

Questions in Both Papers:

1) Group-A

Long Question (Basic & Allied)

1 = 10 Marks
2) Group-B

Long Question- clinical problem

1 out of 2 = 10 Marks
3) Group-C

Short Notes

2 out of 4 = 2 x 5 =10 Marks
4) Group-D

Brief answer type

2 out of 4 = 2 x 5 =10 Marks
Total = 40 Marks

B. Practical Examination = 50 Marks [30+20]

  1. One long case = 30
  2. One Short case = 20

C. Oral Examination = 30 Marks

  1. Instrument, Operation (only outline) and steps of minor operations =5
  2. 6 Specimen = 5
  3. X-Ray (only in Gynecology Table) & USG films (Only reading) = 5
  4. Problems and recent advances = 5
  5. Delivery Notes = 5,
  6. Obstetrics maneuvers = 5

D. Internal Assessment = 40 Marks (theory 20 + practical 20)

TOTAL 200 Marks in Obstetrics & Gynaecology

 

 

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2018

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. A lady comes with history of 8 month amenorrhoea, on examination fundal height was found to be of 24 week size – What are the possibilities? Give an outline of diagnosis and management of intra-uterine Foetal Death (IUFD) 2+4+4

Group-B

2. Define PPH. What are the causes of PPH? How do you manage a case of atonic PPH immediately after vaginal delivery? 2+3+5

Group-C

3. Write short notes on (any tow) of the following: 2×5

a) Plane of pelvic dimension.

b) Medical management of ectopic pregnancy.

c) MgSO4 (Magnesium Sulphate) therapy in eclampsia..

d) Apgar score

Group-D

4. Answer brief any tow of the following: 2×5

a) Once caesarean section in not always caesarean section – Justify

b) Routine ultrasonography USG examination in second trimester 18-20 weeks, to all pregnant mother is mandatory – Justify

c) Supplementation of folic acid is necessary in all pregnancy – Justify

d) All labours should be monitored by partograph – Comment

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2018

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. What are the common cause of lower abdominal lump in women of reproductive age group? How will you differentiate clinically between ovarian and uterine lump? Enumerate the common epithelial ovarian tumours. 3+4+3

Group-B

2. A women aged 35 years came to OPD with the complain of something coming down per vagina. What are different diagnosis and distinguishing features of these condition? Discuss the different treatment options available for second degree vagino-uterine prolapse? 2+4+4

Group-C

3. Write short notes on (any tow) of the following: 2×5

a) Puberty menorrhagia.

b) Complication of ovarian tumour.

c) definition and causes of secondary amenorrhoea.

d) tubal factors of infertility.

Group-D

4. Answer brief any tow of the following: 2×5

a) Carcinoma cervix is a preventable malignancy – Justify

b) Post-menopausal bleeding per vagina should always be investigate – Justify

c) Different types of menstrual abnormalities may be associated with leiomyomas – Comment

d) Three swab test differentiates the different urinary fistulas – Comment

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2017

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. How do you diagnose pre-eclampsia? What are its complications? 5+5

Group-B

2. Define abortion. Give its classification. How do you differentiate between threatened abortion and inevitable abortion? Briefly outline the management of missed abortion. 2+2+3+3

Group-C

3. Write short notes on any two: 2 x 5

a) Non-stress test.

b) Amniotic fluid.

c) Puerperal sepsis.

d) Neonatal resuscitation at birth.

Group-D

4. Answer in brief on any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Active management of third stage of labour should be routinely practised – justify

b) Injection Betamethasone should be given to all women with pre-term labour – justify

c) Follow up is necessary after evacuation of Hydatidiform mole – comment

d) All antenatal mothers should be screened for diabetes mellitus – justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2017

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Define ovulation. What are the symptoms and signs of ovulation? How would you investigate the female

factors in a case of infertility? 1+4+5

Group-B

2. What are the causes of post-menopausal bleeding? How would you proceed to investigate such a case? 4+6

Group-C

3. Write short notes on any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Perineal body.

b) Dermoid cyst of ovary.

c) Progesterone-only pill.

d) Normal semen report.

Group-D

 

4. Answer briefly on any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Ovarian malignancy is often diagnosed late – Comment

b) Upper reproductive tract infection is a sequale of lower reproductive tract infection – Comment

c) Use of injectable contraception’s or IUCD are important contraceptives for our country – Justify

d) Laparoscopy is mandatory for evaluation of female infertility – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2016

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Define intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD). What are its causes? How do you diagnose such a case? 1+4+5

Group-B

2. A primigravida, 28 year, presents with vaginal bleeding at 34 weeks of gestation. What are its causes?

How will you investigate such a case? Outline its management. 2+3+5

Group-C

3. Write short notes on any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Use of Misoprostol in Obstetrics.

b) Placenta succenturiata.

c) Routine examination of newborn at birth.

d) Vulval haematoma.

Group-D

4. Answer in brief on any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy prevents surgical intervention – Justify

b) Oral iron supplementation during pregnancy is necessary – Comment

c) Perinatal mortality and morbidity is higher in breech delivery – Comment

d) All post – caesarean section mothers do not require caesarean section as a mode of Termination of subsequent pregnancy.

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2016

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Define metrorrhagia. What are its causes? How would you proceed to manage a patient aged 45 years having metrorrhagia? 1+3+6

Group-B

2. Enumerate two common varieties of benign epithelial tumours of ovary. Discuss the diagnosis and

management of benign ovarian tumour. 1+4+5

Group-C

3. Write short notes on any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Causes of secondary dysmenorrhoea.

b) PAP smear from cervix.

c) Different methods of tubectomy.

d) Gartner’s duct cyst.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Husband’s semen analysis is the first investigation to evaluate a case of infertility – Justify

b) Surgical treatment for genital prolapse is decided after considering age and reproductive wishes

of the patient – Comment

c) Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a diagnosis of exclusion – Justify

d) Syndromic approach is effective for managing reproductive tract infection – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2015

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. What are the varieties of twin pregnancy? Enumerate the maternal and fetal complications of twin pregnancy. How would you diagnose twin pregnancy? 2+4+4

Group-B

2. What are the causes of bleeding per vagina in the first trimester of pregnancy? Discuss the diagnosis of

hydatidiform mole. Write in short its management. 2+4+4

Group-C

3. Write short notes on any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Haematological changes in pregnancy.

b) Battledore placenta.

c) Complications in Intra-uterine fetal death.

d) Benefits of breast feeding.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Iron therapy is essential during pregnancy – Justify

b) Partograph is a suitable method to monitor labour – Comment

c) Active management of third stage of labour should be done in all cases – Justify

d) Eclampsia is preventable to a large extent – Comment

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2015

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Define post-menopausal bleeding. What are the causes of post-menopausal bleeding? Give an outline of its

management. 1+4+5

Group-B

2. A 15 year old girl complains of amenorrhoea with periodic pain in lower abdomen. How would you proceed to diagnose the case? What will be the management of such a case? 5+5

Group-C

3. Write short notes on (any two) of the following: 2 x 5

a) Vaginal trichomoniasis.

b) Uterine polyp.

c) Lymphatic drainage of uterine cervix.

d) Tubercular endometritis.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2 x 5

a) Healthy ovaries should be preserved in hysterectomy done for benign diseases in women aged less

than 45 years – Comment

b) Oral contraceptive pills have non-contraceptive benefits – Comment.

c) Laparoscopy is more informative than HSG in evaluation of female infertility – Justify

d) Diagnosis of ovarian cancer is usually delayed – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2014

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

l. A primigravida at 34 weeks of gestation with vaginal bleeding attends hospital emergency. Enumerate

the possible causes. How will you diagnose it? What will be the management of such case? 2+4+4

Group B

2. Define normal labour. What are the different stages of labour? How will you monitor the progress of

labour? What precautions are taken during delivery of head in vertex position? 2+2+4+2

Group C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Retained placenta.

b) Long Uterine Segment.

c) Apgar Score.

d) Vulva hematoma.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) Maternal mortality is mostly preventable – Justify

b) All pregnant women should undergo routine ultrasound in 2nd trimester (18-12) week – Justify

c) Screening for HIV infection should be done on all pregnant women – Justify

d) External cephalic version still has got a place in the management of breech presentation – Comment

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2014

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. What are the different types of genito-urinary fistula? What are its cause? How will you diagnose a case of

V.V.F.? 2+4+4

Group-B

2. What is dysmenorrhoea? How will you differentiate between primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea? How

will you treat a case of primary dysmenorrhoea? 1+4+5

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Support of the pelvic organs.

b) Mucinous cystadenoma.

c) Contraindications of OCP.

d) Causes of primary amenorrhoea.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) laparoscopy is essential in gynaecological practice – Comment

b) Male partner should be investigated first to evaluate an infertility couple – Justify

c) Vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal women should always be investigate – Justify

d) There is no appropriate method for screening carcinoma of ovary – Comment

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2013

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Enumerate the causes of bleeding per vagina in early months of Pregnancy. Discuss the diagnosis of molar pregnancy and its management. 2+4+4

Group-B

2. Discuss the diagnosis & complications of twin pregnancy. Enumerate briefly the management of twin pregnancy in labour. 3+3+4

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Obstetric outlet.

b) Partogram.

c) Cord prolapse.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) All post caesarean section Pregnancy cases may not be delivered by caesarean section again-Give reasons.

b) Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice in the treatment of Eclampsia – Justify

c) Active management of third stage of labour should be done in all cases – Justify

d) Prophylactic Iron therapy should be given to all pregnant women – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2013

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. What are the causes of menorrhagia. Discuss the management of uterine fibroid. 4 + 6

Group-B

2. What are the causes of Infertility in female partner. Discuss the methods of detection of ovulation & how to induce ovulation. 2 +4 +4

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Cervical erosion.

b) Dermoid cyst of ovary.

c) Cryptomenorrhoea.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) Non-contraceptive use of male condoms – Discuss.

b) Role of Laparoscopy in diagnosis & management of Endometriosis.

c) Methods of choice of second trimester M.T.P. Justify the methods.

d) Tumour Marker has great prognostic value in ovarian malignancy – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2012

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

l. A primigravida of 36 weeks of gestation was admitted with convulsions and a blood pressure of 160/110 mm of Hg. What is your provisional diagnosis? How will you manage this case? 2+3+5

Group-B

2. Define intrauterine foetal death. Enumerate the causes of intrauterine foetal death. Outline it’s management. 2+3+5

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) External Caphalic Version.

b) Retained Placenta.

c) Maternal Complications of multifetal pregnancy.

d) Cardiovascular changes in normal pregnancy.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) All cases of placenta praevia should be delivered by caesarean section – Comment

b) Forceps is losing its place to ventouse us a method of instrumental delivery – Comment

c) Routine ultrasonography in all asymptomatic low risk pregnant women is not recommended – Justify

d) Vaginal delivery in breech presentation is more dangerous than in vertex presentation – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2012

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Discuss the supports of uterus. Enumerate the etiological factors for Pelvic organ Prolapse. Outline the management of procidentia in a post menopausal lady. 4+3+3

Group-B

2. A 45 years old lady with a lower abdominal lump complains of pelvic pain. Who are the possible causes? Briefly outline the management of such a case. 3+7

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Trichomonal Vaginitis.

b) Submucous myoma.

c) Progesterone only Pill (POP).

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) Cervical Screening can effectively reduce Cancer Cervix – Justify

b) The scope of laparoscopic surgery is enhancing – Comment

c) Combined oral Contraceptive is the best Contraceptive option for newly married couple – Justify

d) Age of the patient should be considered before undertaking hysterectomy for benign conditions.

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2011

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. A multi gravida carrying 32 weeks of gestation comes to O&G Emergency with the c/o painful bleeding per vagina. Mention the diagnosis and outline the management in short. 4+6

Group-B

2. Define Recurrent Abortion. Outline the investigations in such a case. 2+8

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Bishop’s Score.

b) Physiological Anaemia of Pregnancy.

c) Induction of Labour.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) How antenatal care can reduce maternal mortality in our country.

b) HIV testing should be done in all pregnant woman – Justify

c) Episiotomy reduces many of the gynaecological disorder – Clarify it

d) Pre-eclampsia is not preventable always whereas Eclampsia is always preventable – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2011

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

l. Define Menorrhagia. What are its causes? How would you manage a case of Menorrhagia due to fibroid uterus? 2+2+6

Group-B

2. Define secondary infertility. What are the causes of secondary infertility? Outline the investigation of such a case. 2+4+4

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Imperforate Hymen.

b) Emergency Commotion.

c) Ovarian curses of Secondary Amenorrhoea.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) Any case of post-menopausal bleeding should be carefully investigated – Justify

b) Indications of ‘Dilatation Curettage’ operation should not be neglected – Mention the discuss the indication.

c) Analyse the importance of Diagnostic Laparoscopy.

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2010

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

l. A primigravida is admitted at 34 weeks pregnancy with bleeding per vagina. How will you investigate and manage such a case? 4+6

Group-B

2. A multigravida is admitted at 32 weeks pregnancy with a haemoglobin value of-4 gm%. Discuss investigation and management of such a ease. 3+7

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Screening for Down’s syndrome in pregnancy.

b) Non-stress test.

c) Polyhydramnios.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) All pregnant women should be given iron and folic acid – Comment

b) All pregnant women should undergo ultrasound in second trimester – Justify

c) All women should be advised about early breast feeding – Why?

e) injection betamethasone should be given to all women with preterm labour – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2010

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Enumerate causes of menorrhagia in a forty year old women. Discuss management of such a case with fibroids. 3+7

Group-B

2. Discuss investigation of a couple with primary infertility. Describe drugs used for ovulation induction. 5+5

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Cervical erosion.

b) Methods of 1st trimester MTP.

c) Post coital contraceptive.

 

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) All married women should undergo PAP smear examination – Justify

b) Good counselling can increase contraceptive acceptance – How?

(c) All women with bilateral tubal block on hysterosalpingography should undergo diagnostic laparoscopy – Justify

d) Prolapse of uterus is preventable – How?

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2009

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. A primigravida had assisted delivery with outlet forceps. She started severe vaginal bleeding four hours after child birth. Enumerate the causes of this bleeding. How will you manage such a patient? 2+8

Group-B

2. A primigravida aged 30 years attends your clinic at 32 weeks of gestation with breech presentation. How will you manage the case till birth of the baby? What injury may occur to the mother and the baby during vaginal breech delivery? 5+5

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Face presentation.

b) Daily foetal movement count beyond 36 weeks of pregnancy.

c) Partogram.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) All pregnant women should be offered screwing for HIV infection in early pregnancy – Justify

b) Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice in the treatment of eclampsia – Justify

c) Active management of third stage of labour should be done in all cases – Justify

d) Maternal mortality is mostly avoidable – Comment

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2009

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Name the cervical premalignant lesions. How do you screen these lesions? Describe the FIGO staging of carcinoma of cervix. 2+3+5

Group-B

2. What are the types of urinary incontinence? A primipara aged 22 years who had forceps delivery following prolonged delivery, complains of continuous leakage of urine par vaginum which started about 7 days after childbirth. Mention the likely cause and your methods to diagnosis of the condition. 5+1+4

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Pelvic part of ureter.

b)Dermoid cyst of ovary.

c) Complications of intra uterine contraceptive device.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) Hormone replacement therapy should be advised in all post menopausal women – critically evaluate

b) Laparoscopy is a better procedure than hystero-salpingography in evaluation of infertility – Justify

c) Method of your choice for second trimester medical termination of presume (MTP) – Justify your choice

d) Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in chorio-carcinoma of uterus – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2008

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: I Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Define Pre-eclampsia. What are the diagnostic criteria? What are immediate and remote complications? Outline a protocol of management of Eclampsia with Magnesium Sulphate. 2+2+3+3

Group-B

2. Define habitual abortion. How will you investigate a patient with history of habitual abortion? Briefly outline the treatment of cervical incompetence in pregnancy. 2+5+3

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Lower Uterine Segment.

b) Vulval Haematoma.

c) Non-Stress test.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) Prenatal counselling is a must – Justify

b) External Cephalic Version has got a place in management of breech presentation – Critically evaluate

c) Misoprostol has almost replaced other drugs for pregnancy termination (MTP) – Comment

d) Twin pregnancy is a high risk pregnancy – Justify

The West Bengal University of Health Sciences

M.B.B.S. 3rd Professional Part –II Examination, 2008

Subject: Obstetrics & Gynaecology Full Marks: 40

Paper: II Time: 2 hrs.

Use separate answer scripts for each group

Attempt all questions. The figures in the margin indicate full marks.

Group-A

1. Define post menopausal bleeding. What are the causes? How you will arrive at a diagnosis in a case of post menopausal bleeding? l+4+5

Group-B

2. Define secondary amenorrhoea. What are the pathological causes of secondary amenorrhoea? Mention the investigations necessary for diagnosis of PCOS. 1+4+5

Group-C

3. Write short note on (any two): 2×5

a) Lymphatic drainage of cervix.

b) LNG -IUS.

c) Solid tumours of ovary.

Group-D

4. Answer briefly any two of the following: 2×5

a) Justify the place of H.S.G. in the workup protocol of infertility.

b) Early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is still not possible – Give reasons.

c) Male partner should be investigated first in a case of infertility – Give reasons.

d) Selection of cases must be meticulous before prescribing HRT – Justify.

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