Origin of AIDS from oral polio vaccine

Origin of AIDS from oral polio vaccine

Hi everyone! This is the story about the origin of AIDS and how HIV came to infect humans. There are two broadly accepted theories –

  1. The hunter theory– this goes that Africans in central Africa hunted chimps ans other primates and ate the bushmeat. The chimps are the carriers of SIV, the closest ancestor to HIV( The SIV is very well dealt with by chimps as our body deals with chickenpox or common cold but its cousin HIV wreaks havoc in human immune system. possibility of a cure then by studying chimps!!!! go start researching ). During the process of skinning the meat they got infected as HIV spreads through contact of blood and mucosa. This is what you will read in your books. Now, let me ask you this -“these very humans were hunting and eating bushmeat for thousands of years but why AIDS was transmitted now??????”. This is the question which kept bothering me.
  2. The oral polio vaccine theory- From vaccines??? yes. “So is AIDS manmade???” possibly. Here is what happened. In the turn of the 20th centry children in America died from polio quite frequently. Sp, the big pharma companies started a race to come up with a polio vaccine. We all heard about Mr. Salk. His injectable vaccine was a boon. Very soon about 90 million children was immunized. Then suddenly 11 children fell ill and died, the cause, probably the vaccines were contaminated. This created the need for a safer vaccine. In came into the picture two doctors each legends today Hillary Koprowsky and Albert Sabin. Both developed a oral polio vaccine. Sabin tested the vaccine in his home country, the USSR. Koprowsky went to the central congo in Africa then under the colonial rule of Belgium. Why Belgium? because it had for the day state of the art labs for vaccine production and research. Here the vaccines were cultured using chimpanzee kidney cells. Sabin on the other hand used rhesus monkeys from india and phillipines for his vaccine production. The rhesus monkeys are not carriers of SIV but chimpanzees were. The fact that monkey viruses could be transmitted to humans by vaccines is also well documented- the transmission of sv40 from rhesus monkeys to humans through sabin vaccine. Could a similar thing occurred with SIV in Koprowsky’s vaccines…possibly. when the live vaccines are prepared, the virus is cultured using monolayer cell cultures of monkey kidney cells. however in those days these cell cultures were very crude and often contained other types of cells infected by other contaminated viruses. In the book “the river origin of AIDS”, journalist Mr. Hooper conducted a survey in all the villages in congo where Koprowsky’s vaccine was administered. He found a direct correlation with emergence of AIDS there. The oldest seropositive sample for AIDS is the L70 from leopldville, presnt day Kinchasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo. “wait, wait!!! how can such a disaster remain hidden and suppressed from the public ????”. Well here are the reasons why- a. It would suggest that medicine is responsible for the present day AIDS pandemic and that legendary doctors like Koprowsky would loose their reputation. b. People would loose faith in vaccine screating a panic among them. c. The big pharma companies would loose their millions in revenue if people stopped taking vaccines.

So, this was the story about how SIV entered human population and then evolved into the dreaded HIV, killing millions over the past few decades. All I am saying that there should be more debate about the safety of vaccines. There are amny who refute the vaccine theory but where are the facts that will prove them right. There are no vaccines left from  the batches used in congo. Even though we have the technology to synthetically prepare our vaccines , we still use the old method involving animals simply because it would cost the pharma companies extra money to upgrade and all they care about is their profits. I want us, the future doctors to debate and create a dialogue between us, the public and these companies. We all hope that a cure or vaccine for AIDS is found out soon.


What People in India think about Doctors !!

What People in India think about Doctors !!

Well you may be wondering that this article may highlight the glorious history of Indian medicine and how people in India should appreciate  that. But well lets just say thats not the scenario presently. Lets just say it is one of the most respected career options available in India. People are trying hard to crack the entrance exams to be in this. But the weird thing is that very parent who is actually criticising the doctors admits his/her child in the best coaching institute so that entering into that very profession becomes easy. So you can say a lot of bad things but at the end of the day you unknowingly admit that they are still the saviours of the society. That means people do not actually think that way but they are made to believe certain things by some group of people. now lets think about the so called “Group of People” who are spreading a poison in our profession.

Is it the biased media who considers themselves greater than any doctor and apparently end up channeling an artery?

or is it the fake doctors who are practicing in reputed institutions 

Or is it the local goons who just waits for a moment to take out their frustration on Doctors maybe because he was unable to save an 80 yr old chronic alcoholic with liver cirrhosis . ?

Or is it our very own system who actually makes a doctor work for 10-20 hours continuously ?


All these poisons have actually misguided people about us. We still do work as hard as possible. We sacrifice our own lives for the betterment of society. So lets hope for a day when people will again start admitting that they do respect us and more importantly they need us when their mind will be free from all the influences . Then will be a time when you actually wont be hearing people mumbling behind our backs…you wont actually feel the need for greater security during a night duty…..you will finally be happy after seeing “That Smile” in the innocent face of a child who will actually admire you after you had treated him .

Lets hope for a better future…

PCOS: A growing emergence of the society

PCOS: A growing emergence of the society

One in every 10 women in India has polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrinal system disorder among women of reproductive age, according to a study by PCOS Society. And out of every 10 women diagnosed with PCOS, six are teenage girls.

PCOS was described as early as 1935. However, even today there is a general lack of awareness regarding the condition in India and it often remains undetected for years. This health condition is estimated to affect about 10 million women globally.


WHAT IS PCOS? : Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also known as polycystic ovarian syndrome, is a common health problem caused by an imbalance of reproductive hormones. The hormonal imbalance creates problems in the ovaries. The ovaries make the egg that is released each month as part of a healthy menstrual cycle. With PCOS, the egg may not develop as it should or it may not be released during ovulation as it should be.

PCOS can cause missed or irregular menstrual periods. Irregular periods can lead to:

1. Infertility (inability to get pregnant). In fact, PCOS is one of the most common causes of female infertility.

2. Development of cysts (small fluid-filled sacs) in the ovaries


RISK GROUPS : Between 5% and 10% of women of childbearing age (between 15 and 44) have PCOS.1 Most often, women find out they have PCOS in their 20s and 30s, when they have problems getting pregnant and see their doctor. But PCOS can happen at any age after puberty.2

Women of all races and ethnicities are at risk for PCOS, but your risk for PCOS may be higher if you are obese or if you have a mother, sister, or aunt with PCOS.


SYMPTOMS OF PCOS : Some of the symptoms of PCOS include:

1. Irregular menstrual cycle. Women with PCOS may miss periods or have fewer periods (fewer than eight in a year). Or, their periods may come every 21 days or more often. Some women with PCOS stop having menstrual periods.

2. Too much hair on the face, chin, or parts of the body where men usually have hair. This is called “hirsutism.” Hirsutism affects up to 70% of women with PCOS.

3. Acne on the face, chest, and upper back

4. Thinning hair or hair loss on the scalp; male-pattern baldness

5. Weight gain or difficulty losing weight
Darkening of skin, particularly along neck creases, in the groin, and underneath breasts

6. Skin tags, which are small excess flaps of skin in the armpits or neck area


CAUSE OF PCOS : The exact cause of PCOS is not known. Most experts think that several factors, including genetics, play a role:

1. High levels of androgens. Androgens are sometimes called “male hormones,” although all women make small amounts of androgens. Androgens control the development of male traits, such as male-pattern baldness. Women with PCOS have more androgens than estrogens. Estrogens are also called “female hormones.” Higher than normal androgen levels in women can prevent the ovaries from releasing an egg (ovulation) during each menstrual cycle, and can cause extra hair growth and acne, two signs of PCOS.

  1. High levels of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that controls how the food you eat is changed into energy. Insulin resistance is when the body’s cells do not respond normally to insulin. As a result, your insulin blood levels become higher than normal. Many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, especially those who are overweight or obese, have unhealthy eating habits, do not get enough physical activity, and have a family history of diabetes (usually type 2 diabetes). Over time, insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes.


MEDICINES FOR PCOS : There is no permanent cure for PCOS. However, its symptoms are manageable. The types of medicines that treat PCOS and its symptoms include:

1. Hormonal birth control, including the pill, patch, shot, vaginal ring, and hormone intrauterine device (IUD). For women who don’t want to get pregnant, hormonal birth control can:


  • Make your menstrual cycle more regular
  • Lower your risk of endometrial cancer
  • Help improve acne and reduce extra hair on the face and body (Ask your doctor about birth control with both estrogen and progesterone.)
  1. Anti-androgen medicines. These medicines block the effect of androgens and can help reduce scalp hair loss, facial and body hair growth, and acne. They are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat PCOS symptoms. These medicines can also cause problems during pregnancy.
  2. Metformin. Metformin is often used to treat type 2 diabetes and may help some women with PCOS symptoms. It is not approved by the FDA to treat PCOS symptoms. Metformin improves insulin’s ability to lower your blood sugar and can lower both insulin and androgen levels. After a few months of use, metformin may help restart ovulation, but it usually has little effect on acne and extra hair on the face or body. Recent research shows that metformin may have other positive effects, including lowering body mass and improving cholesterol levels.




  1. The Endocrine Society issued a Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, the most common hormone disorder in women of reproductive age and a leading cause of infertility. In the CPG, The Endocrine Society recommends that a diagnosis be made if adult women have two of the three cardinal features of PCOS (diagnostic criteria supported by the NIH panel):

    • Excess production of male hormones called androgens.
    • Anovulation, a condition where the ovary does not release a mature egg each month. This causes irregular menstrual cycles.
    • The formation of clusters of pearl-size cysts containing immature eggs in the ovaries, which is called polycystic ovaries.    
  2. Women with PCOS are at increased risk for endometrial cancer, whereas their risks for breast and ovarian cancer are similar to those of women in the general population. Our finding that women with PCOS also are at increased risk for cancers of the kidney, colon and brain requires further study.
  3. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation in addition to metformin therapy in women with PCOS could result in a better outcome in a variety of PCOS symptoms including menstrual regularity, and ovulation.
  4. As the prevalence of these endocrine dysfunctions increases, the association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and autoimmune thyroid disease is increasingly being recognised. While the causality of this association is still uncertain, the two conditions share a bidirectional relationship. The exact nature of this link has not been elucidated yet.

LONG TERM HEALTH RISKS : PCOS affects all areas of the body and not just the reproductive systems. Insulin resistance increases the chance of the metabolic syndrome, which means that there is a much higher chance of developing diabetes mellitus, heart disease, obesity, hypertension and increased levels of cholesterol. The lining of the uterus (lining of the womb), called the endometrium tends to become thicker with time. This is called hyperplasia and can lead to cancer of the endometrium. Depression, mood swings, day time drowsiness and snoring are also linked to the effects of PCOS.

EATING RIGHT : Experts agree that eating right can help control insulin levels, make one feel better, keep the heart healthy, lower the risk of getting diabetes and help losing weight. Include fruits, vegetables and whole foods (like whole meal bread, whole grain cereals, brown rice etc) in your diet. Choose lean meat, chicken and fish over red meat. Avoid excess sugar, salt, caffeine, alcohol and smoking. Have regular meals.

Adverse Drug Reaction

Adverse Drug Reaction

In the jungle of human lives
Lived a cunning fox called Mr. Clive.
On a fine February morning he developed a cough.
He did not bother much, the day went rough.
In the evening, when his throat hurt bad.
He didn’t go to the doctor, he thought they were all mad!
Why should I pay Mr. Owl the wise?
For treating an ailment so small in size?
Mr. Clive thought of himself as very smart.
Cunning, though he was, he didn’t know pharmacology was an art.
Like paint, often two drugs mix and create a big bang!
The result is not what we expect ; adverse effects boomerang!
Adverse effects of drugs was something he didn’t know about.
He had a habit of taking OTC pills, he didn’t consult a doctor…Even when in doubt!
Our poor Mr. Clive now suffered from the ill effects of codeine.
He hadn’t had such a terrible cough before , so he drank the entire phial..But in vain!
For in a few minutes he felt light headed and dizzy,
He was wrong about self medication; it wasn’t so easy breezy!
Mr. Rat , like Mr. Fox, thought of himself as very clever.
Overdosed himself with Barbiturates & slept forever.
Mr. Lion was too proud to admit his error.
Took two pills that shouldn’t ever be taken together!
Developed rashes and started itching his mane.
Mr. Owl came to his rescue; gave him the right medicines through his vein.
Some drugs might be safe, but most drugs are not.
Don’t pop them in without giving a second thought!
Ill effects range from mild to severe.
You might lose your life; please be careful dear!
This is something essential for everyone to ponder.
Keep our words in mind ; sorry if we seem to maunder.

Topics for Writing on Medgag

Topics for Writing on Medgag

Are you interested in writing a article? Are you finding what are some good topics to write articles on? But didn’t find any topic. Anyone who wants to write an article finds it difficult to choose a suitable topic.  No doubtedly writing an article is a skill but determining topics to write will help you better to manage your skill. We are here to help you to find a suitable topic for you.  Here are some topics for you.  Topics will be updated frequently. You can suggest a topic by commenting below or can mail us at articles@medgag.com .

You can write a good article if you have some experience and knowledge about the topic. So always try to choose a topic in which you have some knowledge and experience. If you are a first year student you can write about your experience of cracking the entrance examination, so it will be very helpful for their junior batch or he can write about the process of admission in MBBS in a simplified manner so it can be helpful to others.

A physiology professor can make an article helping students understand better about any particular topic that he finds difficult for a student to understand.


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A Digital Contact Lens to Measure Blood Glucose level – A Google Innovation

A Digital Contact Lens to Measure Blood Glucose level – A Google Innovation

Google has taken its innovation to a new level with the release of Google smart contact lens. Digital Contact Lens is a smart contact lens with a wireless chip and a glucose sensor which draws power from the device sharing data via the wireless technology RFID. Google announced about the smart lens on 2014 and will be released for general use after prototype testing. The device can measure the glucose continuously with a frequency of one second.

The wearable technology is currently developed by Verily owned by google released 3 years ago on january 2014. It is consist of multiple sensors and can turn the page of a e-book with a blink of eye. Google claimed that the device can measure the glucose level in blood and warn the wearer when glucose level has crossed a certain threshold.

Let us have a look at the design of the modern lens.

  • The lens consist of a wireless chip and a miniaturized glucose sensor.
  • A tiny pinhole in the lens allows for tear fluid to seep into the sensor
  • Both the sensors are embedded between two soft layers of lens material.
  • The electronics lie outside of both the pupil and iris
  • Chip and antenna are used to receive power and transmit information.
  • This smart lens uses a ultra-flexible and transparent electronic circuit developed by Scientists at ETH Zurich.

Research about Tear glucose levels in normal people and in diabetic patients by D K Sen and G S Sarin revealed that the fasting tear glucose level did not appear to be a satisfactory index for classifying a person as a diabetic or normal. Fasting glucose levels in the tears is 3.6 mg/100 ml  and in the diabetic patients is 16.6 mg/100 ml in average.  But it was found that 4.6% of Diabetics are missed while 5.8% normal persons are classified as diabetics.

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